Optimal test signal design and estimation for dynamic powertrain calibration and control

Fang, Ke
Optimal test signal design and estimation for dynamic powertrain calibration and control. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Liverpool.

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With the dramatic development of the automotive industry and global economy, the motor vehicle has become an indispensable part of daily life. Because of the intensive competition, vehicle manufacturers are investing a large amount of money and time on research in improving the vehicle performance, reducing fuel consumption and meeting the legislative requirement of environmental protection. Engine calibration is a fundamental process of determining the vehicle performance in diverse working conditions. Control maps are developed in the calibration process which must be conducted across the entire operating region before being implemented in the engine control unit to regulate engine parameters at the different operating points. The traditional calibration method is based on steady-state (pseudo-static) experiments on the engine. The primary challenge for the process is the testing and optimisation time that each increases exponentially with additional calibration parameters and control objectives. This thesis presents a basic dynamic black-box model-based calibration method for multivariable control and the method is applied experimentally on a gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) 2.0L virtual engine. Firstly the engine is characterized by dynamic models. A constrained numerical optimization of fuel consumption is conducted on the models and the optimal data is thus obtained and validated on the virtual system to ensure the accuracy of the models. A dynamic optimization is presented in which the entire data sequence is divided into segments then optimized separately in order to enhance the computational efficiency. A dynamic map is identified using the inverse optimal behaviour. The map is shown to be capable of providing a minimized fuel consumption and generally meeting the demands of engine torque and air-fuel-ratio. The control performance of this feedforward map is further improved by the addition of a closed loop controller. An open loop compensator for torque control and a Smith predictor for air-fuel-ratio control are designed and shown to solve the issues of practical implementation on production engines. A basic pseudo-static engine-based calibration is generated for comparative purposes and the resulting static map is implemented in order to compare the fuel consumption and torque and air-fuel-ratio control with that of the proposed dynamic calibration method. Methods of optimal test signal design and parameter estimation for polynomial models are particularly detailed and studied in this thesis since polynomial models are frequently used in the process of dynamic calibration and control. Because of their ease of implementation, the input designs with different objective functions and optimization algorithms are discussed. Novel design criteria which lead to an improved parameter estimation and output prediction method are presented and verified using identified models of a 1.6L Zetec engine developed from test data obtained on the Liverpool University Powertrain Laboratory. Practical amplitude and rate constraints in engine experiments are considered in the optimization and optimal inputs are further validated to be effective in the black box modelling of the virtual engine. An additional experiment of input design for a MIMO model is presented based on a weighted optimization method. Besides the prediction error based estimation method, a simulation error based estimation method is proposed. This novel method is based on an unconstrained numerical optimization and any output fitness criterion can be used as the objective function. The effectiveness is also evaluated in a black box engine modelling and parameter estimations with a better output fitness of a simulation model are provided.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy)
Additional Information: Date: 2012-11 (completed)
Uncontrolled Keywords: System Identification, Optimal Input Design, Parameter Estimation, Optimization, Model-based Calibration
Subjects: ?? TL ??
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2013 09:03
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2022 04:39
DOI: 10.17638/00011397
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/11397