Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman

Al Shekaili, Thunai, Clough, Helen, Ganapathy, Kannan ORCID: 0000-0002-9401-3560 and Baylis, Matthew ORCID: 0000-0003-0335-187X
(2015) Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman. PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, 122 (1-2). pp. 145-153.

[img] Text
AlShekaili et al.pdf - Unspecified

Download (828kB)


Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds which could carry infection further afield.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Poultry, Avian influenza, Newcastle disease, Oman, Survey
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2015 16:06
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2022 11:41
DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.09.011
Publisher's Statement : © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( 0/).
Related URLs: