Blunt Force Trauma in Veterinary Forensic Pathology

Ressel, L ORCID: 0000-0002-6614-1223, Hetzel, U and Ricci, E ORCID: 0000-0001-9751-0661
(2016) Blunt Force Trauma in Veterinary Forensic Pathology. VETERINARY PATHOLOGY, 53 (5). pp. 941-961.

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Veterinary pathologists commonly encounter lesions of blunt trauma. The development of lesions is affected by the object's mass, velocity, size, shape, and angle of impact and by the plasticity and mobility of the impacted organ. Scrape, impact, and pattern abrasions cause localized epidermal loss and sometimes broken hairs and implanted foreign material. Contusions are best identified after reflecting the skin, and must be differentiated from coagulopathies and livor mortis. Lacerations-traumatic tissue tears-may have irregular margins, bridging by more resilient tissue, deviation of the wound tail, crushed hairs, and unilateral abrasion. Hanging or choking can cause circumferential cervical abrasions, contusions and rupture of hairs, hyoid bone fractures, and congestion of the head. Other special forms of blunt trauma include fractured nails, pressure sores, and dog bites. Ocular blunt trauma causes extraocular and intraocular hemorrhages, proptosis, or retinal detachment. The thoracic viscera are relatively protected from blunt trauma but may develop hemorrhages in intercostal muscles, rib fractures, pulmonary or cardiac contusions or lacerations with subsequent hemothorax, pneumothorax, or cardiac arrhythmia. The abdominal wall is resilient and moveable, yet the liver and spleen are susceptible to traumatic laceration or rupture. Whereas extravasation of blood can occur after death, evidence of vital injury includes leukocyte infiltration, erythrophagocytosis, hemosiderin, reparative lesions of fibroblast proliferation, myocyte regeneration in muscle, and callus formation in bone. Understanding these processes aids in the diagnosis of blunt force trauma including estimation of the age of resulting injuries.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: veterinary forensic pathology, blunt trauma, wound age, antemortem wound, postmortem wound, abrasion, contusion, laceration
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2016 10:46
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 07:32
DOI: 10.1177/0300985816653988
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