Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: Insights for applications in HIV therapy

Owen, Andrew ORCID: 0000-0002-9819-7651 and Rannard, Steve ORCID: 0000-0002-6946-1097
(2016) Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: Insights for applications in HIV therapy. ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY REVIEWS, 103. pp. 144-156.

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Advances in solid drug nanoparticle technologies have resulted in a number of long-acting (LA) formulations with the potential for once monthly or longer administration. Such formulations offer great utility for chronic diseases, particularly when a lack of medication compliance may be detrimental to treatment response. Two such formulations are in clinical development for HIV but the concept of LA delivery has its origins in indications such as schizophrenia and contraception. Many terms have been utilised to describe the LA approach and standardisation would be beneficial. Ultimately, definitions will depend upon specific indications and routes of delivery, but for HIV we propose benchmarks that reflect perceived clinical benefits and available data on patient attitudes. Specifically, we propose dosing intervals of ≥1week, ≥1month or ≥6months, for oral, injectable or implantable strategies, respectively. This review focuses upon the critical importance of potency in achieving the LA outcome for injectable formulations and explores established and emerging technologies that have been employed across indications. Key technological challenges such as the need for consistency and ease of administration for drug combinations, are also discussed. Finally, the review explores the gaps in knowledge regarding the pharmacology of drug release from particulate-based LA injectable suspensions. A number of hypotheses are discussed based upon available data relating to local drug metabolism, active transport systems, the lymphatics, macrophages and patient-specific factors. Greater knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin drug release and protracted exposure will help facilitate further development of this strategy to achieve the promising clinical benefits.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Nanomedicine, Formulation, Sustained-release, Time-release, Controlled-release, Extended-release, Drug delivery, Pharmacokinetics
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 17 Nov 2016 09:59
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 07:25
DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2016.02.003
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