Compensatory changes in energy balance during dapagliflozin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (ENERGIZE)- study protocol

Rajeev, S, Sprung, VS ORCID: 0000-0002-2666-4986, Roberts, C ORCID: 0000-0003-4275-601X, Harrold, JA ORCID: 0000-0002-0899-4586, Halford, JCG ORCID: 0000-0003-1629-3189, Stancak, A ORCID: 0000-0003-3323-3305, Boyland, E ORCID: 0000-0001-8384-4994, Kemp, GJ ORCID: 0000-0002-8324-9666, Cuthbertson, D ORCID: 0000-0002-6128-0822 and Wilding, J ORCID: 0000-0003-2839-8404
(2017) Compensatory changes in energy balance during dapagliflozin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (ENERGIZE)- study protocol. BMJ Open, 7 (1). e013539-.

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Introduction Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we aim to study the compensatory changes in energy intake, eating behaviour and energy expenditure accompanying use of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin. Additionally, we aim to quantify changes in fat distribution using MRI, in liver fat using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and in central nervous system (CNS) responses to food images using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Methods and analysis This outpatient study will evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin (10 mg), compared with placebo, on food intake and energy expenditure at 7 days and 12 weeks. 52 patients with T2DM will be randomised to dapagliflozin or placebo for short-term and long-term trial interventions in a within participants, crossover design. The primary outcome is the difference in energy intake during a test meal between dapagliflozin and placebo. Intake data are collected automatically using a customised programme operating a universal eating monitor (UEM). Secondary outcomes include (1) measures of appetite regulation including rate of eating, satiety quotient, appetite ratings (between and within meals), changes in CNS responses to food images measured using BOLD-fMRI, (2) measures of energy expenditure and (3) changes in body composition including changes in liver fat and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ethical approval This study has been approved by the North West Liverpool Central Research Ethics Committee (14/NW/0340) and is conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Good Clinical Practice (GCP).

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Liver, Brain, Adipose Tissue, Humans, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Benzhydryl Compounds, Glucosides, Hypoglycemic Agents, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Organ Size, Calorimetry, Indirect, Cross-Over Studies, Double-Blind Method, Feeding Behavior, Cues, Body Composition, Energy Metabolism, Eating, Food, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Body Fat Distribution, Functional Neuroimaging, Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2016 11:56
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 07:24
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013539
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