Experimental Models of Short Courses of Liposomal Amphotericin B for Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis.



Lestner, J, McEntee, L, Johnson, A ORCID: 0000-0002-6684-3321, Livermore, J, Whalley, S, Schwartz, J, Perfect, JR, Harrison, T and Hope, W ORCID: 0000-0001-6187-878X
(2017) Experimental Models of Short Courses of Liposomal Amphotericin B for Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 61 (06).

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Abstract

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B. A dose-dependent decline in fungal burden was observed in the brain of mice with near-maximal efficacy achieved with LAmB 10-20 mg/kg/day. The terminal elimination half-life in brain was 133 hours. The pharmacodynamics of a single dose of 20 mg/kg was the same as 20 mg/kg/day administered for 2 weeks. Changes in quantitative counts were reflected by histopathological changes in the brain. Three doses of LAmB 5 mg/kg/day in rabbits were required to achieve fungicidal activity in cerebrospinal fluid (cumulative AUC 2500 mg.h/L). Amphotericin B was visible in the intra- and perivascular spaces, leptomeninges and choroid plexus. The prolonged mean residence time of amphotericin B in the brain suggest abbreviated induction regimens of LAmB are possible for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: liposomal amphotericin B, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, Cryptococcus neoformans, cryptococcal meningitis, meningoencephalitis
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2017 06:39
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2021 07:48
DOI: 10.1128/aac.00090-17
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3006893