Definition of the Nature and Hapten Threshold of the β-Lactam Antigen Required for T Cell Activation In Vitro and in Patients.

Meng, X ORCID: 0000-0002-7774-2075, Al-Attar, Z, Yaseen, FS, Jenkins, R, Earnshaw, C, Whitaker, P, Peckham, D, French, NS ORCID: 0000-0002-9376-3482, Naisbitt, DJ and Park, BK ORCID: 0000-0001-8384-824X
(2017) Definition of the Nature and Hapten Threshold of the β-Lactam Antigen Required for T Cell Activation In Vitro and in Patients. Journal of Immunology, 198 (11). pp. 4217-4227.

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Covalent modification of protein by drugs may disrupt self-tolerance, leading to lymphocyte activation. Until now, determination of the threshold required for this process has not been possible. Therefore, we performed quantitative mass spectrometric analyses to define the epitopes formed in tolerant and hypersensitive patients taking the β-lactam antibiotic piperacillin and the threshold required for T cell activation. A hydrolyzed piperacillin hapten was detected on four lysine residues of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from tolerant patients. The level of modified Lys(541) ranged from 2.6 to 4.8%. Analysis of plasma from hypersensitive patients revealed the same pattern and levels of modification 1-10 d after the commencement of therapy. Piperacillin-responsive skin-homing CD4(+) clones expressing an array of Vβ receptors were activated in a dose-, time-, and processing-dependent manner; analysis of incubation medium revealed that 2.6% of Lys(541) in HSA was modified when T cells were activated. Piperacillin-HSA conjugates that had levels and epitopes identical to those detected in patients were shown to selectively stimulate additional CD4(+) clones, which expressed a more restricted Vβ repertoire. To conclude, the levels of piperacillin-HSA modification that activated T cells are equivalent to the ones formed in hypersensitive and tolerant patients, which indicates that threshold levels of drug Ag are formed in all patients. Thus, the propensity to develop hypersensitivity is dependent on other factors, such as the presence of T cells within an individual's repertoire that can be activated with the β-lactam hapten and/or an imbalance in immune regulation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Humans, Drug Hypersensitivity, beta-Lactams, Piperacillin, Serum Albumin, Antigens, Epitopes, Haptens, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Lymphocyte Activation, Immune Tolerance, Adult, Female, Male, Mass Spectrometry, Young Adult
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 22 May 2017 07:42
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 07:05
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700209
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