Combination Therapy with Isavuconazole and Micafungin for Treatment of Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Petraitis, Vidmantas, Petraitiene, Ruta, McCarthy, Matthew W, Kovanda, Laura L ORCID: 0000-0002-4493-4652, Zaw, Myo H, Hussain, Kaiser, Shaikh, Naima, Maung, Bo Bo W, Sekhon, Navjot K, Hope, William W ORCID: 0000-0001-6187-878X
et al (show 1 more authors) (2017) Combination Therapy with Isavuconazole and Micafungin for Treatment of Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, 61 (9). e00305-e00317.

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Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesized that simultaneous inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and (1→3)-β-d-glucan in the cell wall, respectively, by the antifungal triazole isavuconazole (ISA) and the echinocandin micafungin (MFG) may result in improved outcomes in experimental IPA in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Treatments included ISA at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day (ISA20), 40 mg/kg/day (ISA40), and 60 mg/kg/day (ISA60); MFG at 2 mg/kg/day (MFG2); combinations of ISA20 and MFG2, ISA40 and MFG2, and ISA60 and MFG2; and no treatment (untreated controls [UC]). The galactomannan index (GMI) and (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in serum were measured. The residual fungal burden (number of CFU per gram) was significantly reduced in ISA20-, ISA40-, ISA60-, ISA20-MFG2-, ISA40-MFG2-, and ISA60-MFG2-treated rabbits compared with that in MFG2-treated or UC rabbits (<i>P</i> < 0.01). Measures of organism-mediated pulmonary injury, lung weights, and pulmonary infarct score were lower in ISA40-MFG2-treated rabbits than in rabbits treated with ISA40 or MFG2 alone (<i>P</i> < 0.01). Survival was prolonged in ISA40-MFG2-treated rabbits in comparison to those treated with ISA40 or MFG2 alone (<i>P</i> < 0.01). These outcome variables correlated directly with significant declines in GMI and serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels during therapy. The GMI correlated with measures of organism-mediated pulmonary injury, lung weights (<i>r</i> = 0.764; <i>P</i> < 0.001), and pulmonary infarct score (<i>r</i> = 0.911; <i>P</i> < 0.001). In summary, rabbits receiving combination therapy with isavuconazole and micafungin demonstrated a significant dose-dependent reduction in the residual fungal burden, decreased pulmonary injury, prolonged survival, a lower GMI, and lower serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in comparison to rabbits receiving isavuconazole or micafungin as a single agent.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: (1 -> 3)-beta-D-glucan, Aspergillus fumigatus, isavuconazole, aspergillosis, combination therapy, galactomannan, micafungin, neutropenia, pharmacokinetics, rabbit
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2017 14:01
Last Modified: 13 Feb 2024 15:02
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00305-17
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