Ethnic differences in early glycemic control in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

Khanolkar, Amal R, Amin, Rakesh, Taylor-Robinson, David ORCID: 0000-0002-5828-7724, Viner, Russell M, Warner, Justin, Gevers, Evelien F and Stephenson, Terence
(2017) Ethnic differences in early glycemic control in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. BMJ OPEN DIABETES RESEARCH & CARE, 5 (1). e000423-.

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Some ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have worse glycemic control (higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1<sub>c</sub>)) and increased risk for vascular complications. There is limited evidence on the impact of ethnicity on early glycemic control when most patients experience transient remission postdiagnosis. We examined associations between ethnicity and longitudinal HbA1<sub>c</sub> trajectories during the first 6 months postdiagnosis in a multiethnic cohort in East London.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Data on 443 (50% female) children <19 years of age, with T1D and attending one of three clinics in East London between January 2005 and December 2015 were included. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess ethnic differences in longitudinal HbA1<sub>c</sub> trajectories during the first 6 months postdiagnosis (1,028 HbA1<sub>c</sub> data points), adjusting for sex, age at diagnosis, socioeconomic status and pH at diagnosis. Growth curve modeling was used to plot discrete HbA1<sub>c</sub> trajectories by ethnicity.<h4>Results</h4>Longitudinal modeling revealed that all ethnic minorities had higher mean HbA1<sub>c</sub> at diagnosis compared with White children and highest in Bangladeshi (9.7 mmol/mol, 95% CI 5.1 to 14.3), Asian-Other (5.8 mmol/mol, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.3) and Somali (5.2 mmol/mol, 95% CI 0.1 to 10.2) children, and these differences persisted over the 6-month period after diagnosis. During the first month, HbA1<sub>c</sub> decreased on average by 19.6 mmol/mol (95% CI -21 to -18) for all children. Population averaged HbA1<sub>c</sub> decreased between diagnosis and 4 months, followed by a gradual increase in HbA1<sub>c</sub> levels (mean difference of -30 mmol/mol between diagnosis and 6 months).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ethnic minorities present with higher HbA1<sub>c</sub> at diagnosis, with the largest mean differences observed in Bangladeshi, Asian-Other and Somali children. These higher levels (indicating poorer glycemic control) track into the first 6 months postdiagnosis.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HbA1c, United Kingdom, diabetes mellitus, ethnicity, glycaemic control, inequalities, type 1
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2017 06:42
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 06:57
DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000423
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