Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Burden and Severity of Influenza Illness in Malawian Adults: A Prospective Cohort and Parallel Case-Control Study



Ho, A ORCID: 0000-0003-1465-3785, Aston, SJ ORCID: 0000-0002-0701-8364, Jary, H, Mitchell, T, Alaerts, M, Menyere, M, Mallewa, J, Nyirenda, M, Everett, D, Heyderman, RS
et al (show 1 more authors) (2018) Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Burden and Severity of Influenza Illness in Malawian Adults: A Prospective Cohort and Parallel Case-Control Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 66 (6). 865 - 876.

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Abstract

The impact of HIV infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, but is rarely implemented in Africa.We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)), and mild influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI)).The cohort study enrolled 608 adults (360 (59%) HIV-infected). Between April 2013 and March 2015, 24/229 (10.5%) ILI episodes in HIV-infected and 5/119 (4.2%) in HIV-uninfected adults were influenza PCR positive (incidence rates 46.0 vs. 14.5 per 1000 person years, incidence rate ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-7.44; p=0.03, adjusted for age, gender, household crowding and food security). In the case control study, influenza was identified in 56/518 (10.8%) patients with hospitalized LRTI, and 88/642 (13.7%) with ILI. HIV prevalence among influenza-positive cases and controls were 69.6% and 29.6% respectively. HIV was a significant risk factor for severe influenza (odds ratio 4.98, 95%CI 2.09-11.88, p<0.001; population attributable fraction 57%, adjusted for season, sanitation facility and food security).HIV is an important risk factor for influenza-associated ILI and severe presentation in this high HIV prevalence African setting. Targeted influenza vaccination of HIV-infected African adults should be re-evaluated and the optimal mechanism for vaccine introduction in overstretched health systems needs to be determined.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HIV, influenza, Malawi, adult, sanitation, HIV infections
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2017 10:59
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2021 21:13
DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix903
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3012049