Oxygen - the forgotten nutrient.

Trayhurn, Paul
(2017) Oxygen - the forgotten nutrient. Journal of nutritional science, 6. e47 - ?.

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O<sub>2</sub> is essential for the maintenance and growth of aerobic animals, similar to the essentiality of what are classically considered nutrients. Nevertheless, O<sub>2</sub> is not customarily regarded as a nutrient, this reflecting the route by which it enters the body - through the lungs or gills in vertebrates, rather than via the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. A relative deficiency of O<sub>2</sub> occurs at high altitudes and during deep-sea diving, to which distinct adaptations occur. Deficiency is also evident in lung diseases such as emphysema. Without O<sub>2</sub>, mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation cannot take place. At a molecular level, cells adapt to O<sub>2</sub> deficiency by switching from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis and there are changes in the expression of a multiplicity of genes, driven by hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors, particularly hypoxia-inducible factor-1. It is argued that O<sub>2</sub> should be fully included within the remit of nutritional science alongside the other essential macronutrients.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2017 10:15
Last Modified: 23 May 2022 20:16
DOI: 10.1017/jns.2017.53
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3013064