Influence of the intestinal microbiota on the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccine given to infants in south India

Parker, Edward PK, Praharaj, Ira, Zekavati, Anna, Lazarus, Robin P, Giri, Sidhartha, Operario, Darwin J, Liu, Jie, Houpt, Eric, Iturriza-Gomara, Miren ORCID: 0000-0001-5816-6423, Kampmann, Beate
et al (show 3 more authors) (2018) Influence of the intestinal microbiota on the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccine given to infants in south India. VACCINE, 36 (2). pp. 264-272.

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Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developingcountries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogensand an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the repli-cation of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case–control study in Vellore,India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not aftertwo doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677).The prevalence of 40 bacterial, viral, and eukaryotic pathogen targets was assessed in pre-vaccinationstool samples from 325 infants using singleplex real-time PCR on a Taqman array card (TAC). In a subsetof 170 infants, we assessed bacterial microbiota composition by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene V4 region.Contrary to expectations, responders were more likely than non-responders to harbor 1 bacterial enter-opathogen at dose 1 (26% [40/156] vs 13% [21/157] of infants with TAC results who completed the studyper protocol;v2,P= .006), although this was not apparent at dose 2 (24% [38/158] vs 23% [36/158];P=.790). Rotavirus shedding after dose 1 was negatively correlated with the replication of co-administeredoral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We observed no consistent differences in composition or diversity of the16S bacterial microbiota according to serological response, although rotavirus shedding was associatedwith slightly more bacterial taxa pre-vaccination. Overall, our findings demonstrate an inhibitory effectof co-administered OPV on the first dose of Rotarix, consistent with previous studies, but in the context ofOPV co-administration we did not find a strong association between other components of the intestinalmicrobiota at the time of vaccination and Rotarix immunogenicity.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Enteropathogens, Immunogenicity, Microbiota, Rotavirus, Rotarix
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2017 11:04
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 06:48
DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.031
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