Recovery of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis suppression during treatment with inhaled corticosteroids for childhood asthma



Gangadharan, A, McCoy, P, Phyo, A, McGuigan, MP, Dharmaraj, P, Ramakrishnan, R and McNamara, PS ORCID: 0000-0002-7055-6034
(2017) Recovery of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis suppression during treatment with inhaled corticosteroids for childhood asthma. Journal of Asthma and Allergy, 2017 (10). 317 - 326.

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Abstract

Objective: To describe recovery of adrenal insufficiency in asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and cortisol replacement therapy. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Patients: A total of 113 patients, 74 male; age 10.4 (3.3–16.5) years; beclomethasone-­equivalent ICS dose, 800 µg, (100–1,000), tested by low dose short Synacthen (tetracosactide) test (LDSST), were studied. Test results were classified by basal and peak cortisol concentration: “normal” (basal >100 nmol/L, peak >500 nmol/L), “suboptimal” (basal >100 nmol/L, peak 350–499 nmol/L), “abnormal” (basal <100 nmol/L and/or peak <350 nmol/L). Patients with suboptimal results received hydrocortisone during periods of stress only, and those with abnormal responses received daily hydrocortisone, increased during periods of stress. A total of 73 patients (68%) had ≥2 LDSSTs over 2.2 years (0.2–7.7). Measurements: Change in cortisol response to repeat LDSST (movement between diagnostic groups, difference in basal and peak cortisol >15% [2× the inter-assay coefficient of variation]), change in BMI and height standard deviation score (SDS). Results: Baseline test results were abnormal in 17 patients (15%) and all of them had repeat tests. In 13 patients (76%), test results improved (normal in six, suboptimal in seven) and four (24%) remained abnormal. Baseline tests results were suboptimal in 54 patients (48%), of whom 50 (93%) were retested. Repeat tests were normal in 36 patients (72%), remained suboptimal in 11 (22%), and were abnormal in three (6%). Baseline tests results were normal in 42 patients, of whom six patients (14%) were retested. Results remained normal in three (50%), were suboptimal in two (33%), and abnormal in one (17%). Basal and peak cortisol levels increased by >15% in 33/73 (45%) and 42/73 (57%) patients, respectively, and decreased by >15% in 14/73 (19%) and 7/73 (10%), respectively. There was no significant change in height or BMI SDS. Conclusion: Recovery of adrenal function is common and occurs during continued ICS and cortisol replacement therapy.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HPA axis recovery, adrenal suppression, childhood asthma, inhaled steroids, (ICS), LDSST
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2017 10:17
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2021 21:10
DOI: 10.2147/JAA.S142874
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S142874
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3014440