Assessment of interactions of efavirenz solid drug nanoparticles with human immunological and haematological systems

Liptrott, Neill J ORCID: 0000-0002-5980-8966, Giardiello, Marco ORCID: 0000-0003-0560-4711, McDonald, Tom O ORCID: 0000-0002-9273-9173, Rannard, Steve P ORCID: 0000-0002-6946-1097 and Owen, Andrew ORCID: 0000-0002-9819-7651
(2018) Assessment of interactions of efavirenz solid drug nanoparticles with human immunological and haematological systems. JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, 16 (1). 22-.

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<h4>Background</h4>Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations. Here we have conducted a preclinical evaluation of efavirenz SDN to assess their potential interaction with these systems. Platelet aggregation and activation, plasma coagulation, haemolysis, complement activation, T cell functionality and phenotype, monocyte derived macrophage functionality, and NK cell function were assessed in primary healthy volunteer samples treated with either aqueous efavirenz or efavirenz SDN.<h4>Results</h4>Efavirenz SDNs were shown not to interfere with any of the systems studied in terms of immunostimulation nor immunosuppression. Although efavirenz aqueous solution was shown to cause significant haemolysis ex vivo, efavirenz SDNs did not. No other interaction with haematological systems was observed. Efavirenz SDNs have been demonstrated to be immunologically and haematologically inert in the utilised assays.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken collectively, along with the recent observation that lopinavir SDN formulations did not impact immunological responses, these data indicate that this type of nanoformulation does not elicit immunological consequences seen with other types of nanomaterial. The methodologies presented here provide a framework for pre-emptive preclinical characterisation of nanoparticle safety.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HIV, Antiretroviral, Biocompatibility, Immunotoxicity, Haematotoxicity
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2018 15:31
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 06:38
DOI: 10.1186/s12951-018-0349-y
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