Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the Slovak Republic between 1993-2008

Psota, Marek, Bandosz, Piotr ORCID: 0000-0002-6395-6216, Goncalvesova, Eva, Avdicova, Maria, Psenkova, Maria Bucek, Studencan, Martin, Pekarcikova, Jarmila, Capewell, Simon ORCID: 0000-0003-3960-8999 and O'Flaherty, Martin ORCID: 0000-0001-8944-4131
(2018) Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the Slovak Republic between 1993-2008. PLOS ONE, 13 (1). e0190090-.

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<h4>Objective</h4>Between the years 1993 and 2008, mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Slovak Republic have decreased by almost one quarter. However, this was a smaller decline than in neighbouring countries. The aim of this modelling study was therefore to quantify the contributions of risk factor changes and the use of evidence-based medical therapies to the CHD mortality decline between 1993 and 2008.<h4>Methods</h4>We identified, obtained and scrutinised the data required for the model. These data detailed trends in the major population cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes prevalence, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity levels), and also the uptake of all standard CHD treatments. The main data sources were official statistics (National Health Information Centre and Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic) and national representative studies (AUDIT, SLOVAKS, SLOVASeZ, CINDI, EHES, EHIS). The previously validated IMPACT policy model was then used to combine and integrate these data with effect sizes from published meta-analyses quantifying the effectiveness of specific evidence-based treatments, and population-wide changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Results were expressed as deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs) attributable to risk factor changes or treatments. Uncertainties were explored using sensitivity analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Between 1993 and 2008 age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in the Slovak Republic (SR) decreased by 23% in men and 26% in women aged 25-74 years. This represented some 1820 fewer CHD deaths in 2008 than expected if mortality rates had not fallen. The IMPACT model explained 91% of this mortality decline. Approximately 50% of the decline was attributable to changes in acute phase and secondary prevention treatments, particularly acute and chronic treatments for heart failure (≈12%), acute coronary syndrome treatments (≈9%) and secondary prevention following AMI and revascularisation (≈8%). Changes in CHD risk factors explained approximately 41% of the total mortality decrease, mainly reflecting reductions in total serum cholesterol. However, other risk factors demonstrated adverse trends and thus generated approximately 740 additional deaths.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our analysis suggests that approximately half the CHD mortality fall recently observed in the SR may be attributable to the increased use of evidence-based treatments. However, the adverse trends observed in all the major cardiovascular risk factors (apart from total cholesterol) are deeply worrying. They highlight the need for more energetic population-wide prevention policies such as tobacco control, reducing salt and industrial trans fats content in processed food, clearer food labelling and regulated marketing of processed foods and sugary drinks.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, Cardiovascular Diseases, Coronary Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Agents, Angioplasty, Exercise, Coronary Artery Bypass, Diet, Mortality, Risk Factors, Smoking, Evidence-Based Medicine, Models, Cardiovascular, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Slovakia, Female, Male, Overweight, Meta-Analysis as Topic
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2018 08:48
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 06:37
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190090
Open Access URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.137...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3019483