A chemical alphabet for macromolecular communications.



Giannoukos, S ORCID: 0000-0003-3045-5084, McGuiness, Daniel ORCID: 0000-0003-3075-9213, Marshall, Alan ORCID: 0000-0002-8058-5242, Smith, Jeremy ORCID: 0000-0002-0212-2365 and Taylor, Steve ORCID: 0000-0002-2144-8459
(2018) A chemical alphabet for macromolecular communications. Analytical Chemistry, 90 (12). 7739 - 7746.

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Abstract

Molecular communications in macroscale environments is an emerging field of study driven by the intriguing prospect of sending coded information over olfactory networks. For the first time, this article reports two signal modulation techniques (on–off keying—OOK, and concentration shift keying—CSK) which have been used to encode and transmit digital information using odors over distances of 1–4 m. Molecular transmission of digital data was experimentally investigated for the letter “r” with a binary value of 01110010 (ASCII) for a gas stream network channel (up to 4 m) using mass spectrometry (MS) as the main detection-decoding system. The generation and modulation of the chemical signals was achieved using an automated odor emitter (OE) which is based on the controlled evaporation of a chemical analyte and its diffusion into a carrier gas stream. The chemical signals produced propagate within a confined channel to reach the demodulator—MS. Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with different diffusion coefficient values in air at ambient conditions. Representative compounds investigated include acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane. For the first time, the binary code ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is combined with chemical signaling to generate a molecular representation of the English alphabet. Transmission experiments of fixed-width molecular signals corresponding to letters of the alphabet over varying distances are shown. A binary message corresponding to the word “ion” was synthesized using chemical signals and transmitted within a physical channel over a distance of 2 m.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: diffusion, ketones, molecules membranes
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2018 09:14
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2021 13:10
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01716
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3021972