Hybrid stochastic framework predicts efficacy of prophylaxis against HIV: An example with different dolutegravir prophylaxis schemes

Duwal, Sulav, Dickinson, Laura ORCID: 0000-0001-5557-9396, Khoo, Saye ORCID: 0000-0002-2769-0967 and von Kleist, Max
(2018) Hybrid stochastic framework predicts efficacy of prophylaxis against HIV: An example with different dolutegravir prophylaxis schemes. PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, 14 (6). e1006155-.

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To achieve the 90-90-90 goals set by UNAIDS, the number of new HIV infections needs to decrease to approximately 500,000 by 2020. One of the 'five pillars' to achieve this goal is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Truvada (emtricitabine-tenofovir) is currently the only medication approved for PrEP. Despite its advantages, Truvada is costly and requires individuals to adhere to the once-daily regimen. To improve PrEP, many next-generation regimen, including long-acting formulations, are currently investigated. However, pre-clinical testing may not guide candidate selection, since it often fails to translate into clinical efficacy. On the other hand, quantifying prophylactic efficacy in the clinic is ethically problematic and requires to conduct long (years) and large (N>1000 individuals) trials, precluding systematic evaluation of candidates and deployment strategies. To prioritize- and help design PrEP regimen, tools are urgently needed that integrate pharmacological-, viral- and host factors determining prophylactic efficacy. Integrating the aforementioned factors, we developed an efficient and exact stochastic simulation approach to predict prophylactic efficacy, as an example for dolutegravir (DTG). Combining the population pharmacokinetics of DTG with the stochastic framework, we predicted that plasma concentrations of 145.18 and 722.23nM prevent 50- and 90% sexual transmissions respectively. We then predicted the reduction in HIV infection when DTG was used in PrEP, PrEP 'on demand' and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) before/after virus exposure. Once daily PrEP with 50mg oral DTG prevented 99-100% infections, and 85% of infections when 50% of dosing events were missed. PrEP 'on demand' prevented 79-84% infections and PEP >80% when initiated within 6 hours after virus exposure and continued for as long as possible. While the simulation framework can easily be adapted to other PrEP candidates, our simulations indicated that oral 50mg DTG is non-inferior to Truvada. Moreover, the predicted 90% preventive concentrations can guide release kinetics of currently developed DTG nano-formulations.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Oxazines, Piperazines, Pyridones, Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring, Anti-HIV Agents, Models, Statistical, Stochastic Processes, Computer Simulation, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2018 15:09
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 01:30
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006155
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006155
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3023730