Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of infant exposure to efavirenz through breastfeeding



Olagunju, Adeniyi, Rajoli, Rajith, Atoyebi, Shakir, Khoo, Saye, Owen, Andrew and Siccardi, Marco
(2018) Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of infant exposure to efavirenz through breastfeeding.

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Abstract

Background: Very little is known about the level of infant exposure to many drugs commonly used during breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting infant exposure to maternal efavirenz through breastmilk. Methods: A breastfeeding PBPK model combining whole-body maternal and infant sub-models was constructed from drug-specific and system parameters affecting drug disposition using mathematical descriptions. The model was validated against published data on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in nursing mother-infant pairs. Further simulations were conducted to assess exposure in the context of the 400 mg reduced dose of efavirenz as well as best- and worse-case scenarios. Results: The model adequately described efavirenz pharmacokinetics, with over 80% of observed data points (203 matched breast milk and plasma pairs) within the predictive interval. All parameters were within 2-fold difference of clinical data. Median (range) predicted versus observed breast milk AUC 0-24 , C max and C min at the standard 600 mg dose were 75.0 (18.5-324) versus 68.5 (26.3-257) µg.hr/mL, 4.56 (1.17-16.0) versus 5.39 (1.43-18.4) µg/mL, and 2.11 (0.38-12.3) versus 1.68 (0.316-9.57) µg/mL, respectively. Predicted plasma AUC 0-24 , C max and C min at 400 mg reduced dose were similar to clinical data from non-breastfeeding adults. Model-predicted infant plasma concentrations were similar to clinical data, 0.15 (0.026–0.78) μg/mL at the 400 mg maternal dose in pooled analysis, approximately 25% lower than simulated exposure at 600 mg. The maximum exposure index was observed in the youngest infants, 5.9% (2.2-20) at 400 mg and 8.7% (3.2-29) at 600 mg. Thirteen and 36% of 10 days-1 month old infants were predicted to have exposure index above the 10% recommended threshold at 400 mg and 600 mg maternal dose, respectively. Conclusions: This application of PBPK modelling opens up opportunities for expanding our understanding of infant exposure to maternal drugs through breastfeeding.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2018 10:04
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2019 11:11
DOI: 10.12688/aasopenres.12860.1
URI: http://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3027690
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