The impact of unloading stresses on post-caldera magma intrusions

Gaete, Ayleen, Kavanagh, JL, Rivalta, Eleonora, Hilmi Hazim, Suraya ORCID: 0000-0002-1514-7529, Walter, Thomas and Dennis, David ORCID: 0000-0003-0214-7885
(2019) The impact of unloading stresses on post-caldera magma intrusions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 508. 109 - 121.

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Calderas represent morphological depressions several kilometers in diameter, and the unloaded crustal stresses they produce can form rapidly (e.g. Pinatubo, 1990) or slowly (e.g. Hawaii, 2018). Active calderas are known as sites of persistent magma intrusions, and yet the dynamics of their shallow plumbing system is not well constrained. We use scaled laboratory experiments to study how experimental intrusions are created beneath a caldera by injecting dyed water (magma analogue) into the base of an elastic gelatin solid (crust analogue) with a cylindrical cavity in its surface to mimic a caldera-like topography. The evolving dike geometry and stress field were qualitatively determined using polarized light, and digital image correlation allowed the incremental and total strain to be quantified by tracking passive-tracer particles in the gelatin that fluoresced in a thin 2D vertical laser sheet. Our results show that the unloaded stress field from a caldera can cause a divergence of vertical dikes, and leads to circumferential dikes and cone sheets. When the caldera was large the initially vertical dike became arrested, then grew laterally via circumferentially-propagating en echelon segments; these eventually joined to complete a cone sheet that was parallel to, but extended outside and beneath, the large caldera. When the caldera was small, a circumferential dike erupted, producing a short fissure which was outside, but parallel to, the caldera. We suggest that the distinct curved geometry, velocity, strain and stress characteristics of circumferential dikes and cone sheets can be used to interpret the origin and growth of post-caldera magmatism and the likelihood of eruption in caldera systems.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: caldera, cone sheet, gelatin analogue modeling, circumferential dike, digital image correlation
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2019 11:22
Last Modified: 14 Jan 2021 03:11
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.12.016
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