Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Levofloxacin in Acutely Hospitalized Older Patients with Various Degrees of Renal Function



Cojutti, Pier Giorgio, Ramos-Martin, Virginia, Schiavon, Isabella, Rossi, Paolo, Baraldo, Massimo, Hope, William ORCID: 0000-0001-6187-878X and Pea, Federico
(2017) Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Levofloxacin in Acutely Hospitalized Older Patients with Various Degrees of Renal Function. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, 61 (3). e02134-e02116.

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Abstract

A retrospective study was conducted in a large sample of acutely hospitalized older patients who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring during levofloxacin treatment. The aim was to assess the population pharmacokinetics (popPK) and pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin among older patients. PopPK and Monte Carlo simulation were performed to define the permissible doses in older patients according to various degrees of renal function. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to detect the cutoff 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC<sub>24</sub>)/MIC ratio that best correlated with the clinical outcome. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of this value was calculated against different pathogens. A total of 168 patients were included, and 330 trough and 239 peak concentrations were used for the popPK analysis. Creatinine clearance (CrCL) was the only covariate that improved the model fit (levofloxacin CL = 0.399 + 0.051 × CrCL<sub>CKD-EPI</sub> [creatinine clearance estimated by means of the chronic kidney disease epidemiology]). Drug doses ranged between 500 mg every 48 h and 500 mg every 12 h in relation to different renal functions. The identified cutoff AUC<sub>24</sub>/MIC ratio (≥95.7) was the only covariate that correlated with a favorable clinical outcome in multivariate regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 20.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 186.73). PTAs were optimal (>80%) against <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Haemophilus influenzae</i>, borderline against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, and suboptimal against <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> The levofloxacin doses defined in our study may be effective for the treatment of infections due to bacterial pathogens, with an MIC of ≤0.5 mg/liter in older patients with various degrees of renal function, while minimizing the toxicity risk. Conversely, the addition of another active antimicrobial should be considered whenever treating infections caused by less susceptible pathogens.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: fluoroquinolones, personalized therapy, safety, efficacy, population pharmacokinetics
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2019 14:31
Last Modified: 13 Feb 2024 14:54
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02134-16
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3031961

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