Modulation Analysis in Macro-Molecular Communications



McGuiness, Daniel Tunc ORCID: 0000-0003-3075-9213, Giannoukos, Stamatios, Marshall, Alan ORCID: 0000-0002-8058-5242 and Taylor, Stephen ORCID: 0000-0002-2144-8459
(2019) Modulation Analysis in Macro-Molecular Communications. IEEE Access, 7. 11049 - 11065.

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Abstract

Molecular communication (MC) involves the transmission of information using particles (i.e., molecules). Research into the field has been dominated by micro-scale, and most of the effects of macro-scale communication have yet to be studied. In this paper, the modulation and transmission of MC at macro-scale are investigated. For the transmitter, an in-house-built odor generator was used, and as the detector, a mass spectrometer with a quadrupole mass analyzer was employed. Various 2-level, 4-level, and 8-level modulation schemes were tested experimentally. A simulation framework, developed for the first time, was used for comparison with the experimental results. It was shown that communication can be modeled using a variant of the advection-diffusion equation and that it gives good agreement with the experimental results. A symbol-error-rate (SER) analysis of both the experimental and simulation results was analyzed. It was found that increasing the distance has a detrimental effect on both the channel capacity and the SER, whereas velocity and diffusivity have a decreasing effect on the SER and an increasing effect on the channel capacity. A channel model was developed based on the asymmetric behavior of the communications, and the optimal sampling period was developed that subsequently permitted analysis of the ISI of the communications scheme.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chemicals, Mathematical model, Modulation, Molecular communication, Transmitters, Analytical models, Detectors
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2019 12:06
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2021 19:12
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2892850
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3033505