Petrological architecture of a magmatic shear zone: A multidisciplinary investigation of strain localisation during magma ascent at Unzen volcano, Japan

Wallace, Paul ORCID: 0000-0003-2442-7386, Kendrick, Jackie ORCID: 0000-0001-5106-3587, Miwa, Takahiro, Ashworth, James, Coats, Rebecca ORCID: 0000-0002-2389-150X, Utley, James ORCID: 0000-0003-0397-5607, Henton De Angelis, Sarah, Mariani, Elisabetta ORCID: 0000-0002-0585-5265, Biggin, Andrew ORCID: 0000-0003-4164-5924, Kendrick, Rhodri
et al (show 3 more authors) (2019) Petrological architecture of a magmatic shear zone: A multidisciplinary investigation of strain localisation during magma ascent at Unzen volcano, Japan. Journal of Petrology, 60 (4). pp. 791-826.

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Shearing of magma during ascent can promote strain localisation near the conduit margins. Anymechanical and thermal discontinuities associated with such events may alter the chemical, physicaland rheological stability of the magma and thus its propensity to erupt. Lava spines can record suchprocesses, preserving a range of macroscopic and microscopic deformation textures, attributed toshearing and friction, as magma ascends through the viscous-brittle transition. Here, we use a multi-disciplinary approach combining petrology, microstructures, crystallography, magnetics and experi-mentation to assess the evidence, role and extent of shearing across a marginal shear zone of the1994–1995 lava spine at Unzen volcano, Japan. Our results show that crystals can effectively moni-tor stress conditions during magma ascent, with viscous remobilisation, crystal plasticity and com-minution all systematically increasing towards the spine margin. Accompanying this, we find anincrease in mineral destabilisation in the form of pargasitic amphibole breakdown displaying tex-tural variations across the shear zone, from symplectitic to granular rims towards the spine margin.In addition, the compaction of pores, chemical and textural alteration of interstitial glass and mag-netic variations all change systematically with shear intensity. The strong correlation between thedegree of shearing, crystal deformation and disequilibrium features, together with distinct magneticproperties, implies a localised thermal input due to shear and frictional processes near the conduitmargin during magma ascent. This was accompanied by late-stage or post-emplacement fluid- andgas-induced alteration of the gouge, as well as oxidation and glass devitrification. Understandingand recognising evidence for strain localisation during magma ascent may, therefore, be vital whenassessing factors that regulate the style of volcanic eruptions, which may provide insights into thecryptic shifts from effusive to explosive activity as observed at many active lava domes

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: amphibole;, crystal plasticity, lava spine, shear heating, strain localisation, Unzen volcano
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2019 08:47
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:57
DOI: 10.1093/petrology/egz016
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