Assessing Feasibility and Acceptability of Web-Based Enhanced Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Disorder (ERPonline): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Lobban, Fiona ORCID: 0000-0001-6594-4350, Dodd, Alyson L ORCID: 0000-0002-8872-2272, Sawczuk, Adam P ORCID: 0000-0002-9016-218X, Asar, Ozgur ORCID: 0000-0003-0603-1409, Dagnan, Dave ORCID: 0000-0002-5709-1586, Diggle, Peter J ORCID: 0000-0003-3521-5020, Griffiths, Martin ORCID: 0000-0003-1638-0506, Honary, Mahsa ORCID: 0000-0001-5966-2197, Knowles, Dawn ORCID: 0000-0001-9342-3982, Long, Rita ORCID: 0000-0002-7129-1242
et al (show 3 more authors) (2017) Assessing Feasibility and Acceptability of Web-Based Enhanced Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Disorder (ERPonline): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of medical Internet research, 19 (3). e85-.

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<h4>Background</h4>Interventions that teach people with bipolar disorder (BD) to recognize and respond to early warning signs (EWS) of relapse are recommended but implementation in clinical practice is poor.<h4>Objectives</h4>The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a Web-based enhanced relapse prevention intervention (ERPonline) and to report preliminary evidence of effectiveness.<h4>Methods</h4>A single-blind, parallel, primarily online RCT (n=96) over 48 weeks comparing ERPonline plus usual treatment with "waitlist (WL) control" plus usual treatment for people with BD recruited through National Health Services (NHSs), voluntary organizations, and media. Randomization was independent, minimized on number of previous episodes (<8, 8-20, 21+). Primary outcomes were recruitment and retention rates, levels of intervention use, adverse events, and participant feedback. Process and clinical outcomes were assessed by telephone and Web and compared using linear models with intention-to-treat analysis.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 280 people registered interest online, from which 96 met inclusion criteria, consented, and were randomized (49 to WL, 47 to ERPonline) over 17 months, with 80% retention in telephone and online follow-up at all time points, except at week 48 (76%). Acceptability was high for both ERPonline and trial methods. ERPonline cost approximately £19,340 to create, and £2176 per year to host and maintain the site. Qualitative data highlighted the importance of the relationship that the users have with Web-based interventions. Differences between the group means suggested that access to ERPonline was associated with: a more positive model of BD at 24 weeks (10.70, 95% CI 0.90 to 20.5) and 48 weeks (13.1, 95% CI 2.44 to 23.93); increased monitoring of EWS of depression at 48 weeks (-1.39, 95% CI -2.61 to -0.163) and of hypomania at 24 weeks (-1.72, 95% CI -2.98 to -0.47) and 48 weeks (-1.61, 95% CI -2.92 to -0.30), compared with WL. There was no evidence of impact of ERPonline on clinical outcomes or medication adherence, but relapse rates across both arms were low (15%) and the sample remained high functioning throughout. One person died by suicide before randomization and 5 people in ERPonline and 6 in WL reported ideas of suicide or self-harm. None were deemed study related by an independent Trial Steering Committee (TSC).<h4>Conclusions</h4>ERPonline offers a cheap accessible option for people seeking ongoing support following successful treatment. However, given high functioning and low relapse rates in this study, testing clinical effectiveness for this population would require very large sample sizes. Building in human support to use ERPonline should be considered.<h4>Trial registration</h4>International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 56908625; (Archived by WebCite at

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, Feasibility Studies, Single-Blind Method, Bipolar Disorder, Internet, Patient Acceptance of Health Care, Secondary Prevention
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2019 13:17
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:55
DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7008
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