A novel pooled milk test strategy for the herd level diagnosis of Dictyocaulus viviparus



McCarthy, C ORCID: 0000-0001-5636-1882, Hoglund, Johan, Christley, Rob ORCID: 0000-0001-9250-3032, Juremalm, Mikael, Kozlova, Inna, Smith, Robert ORCID: 0000-0003-0944-310X and van Dijk, Jan
(2019) A novel pooled milk test strategy for the herd level diagnosis of Dictyocaulus viviparus. Veterinary Parasitology X, 276S. 100008-.

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Abstract

Current diagnostic methods for detecting the presence or absence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in dairy herds, are insensitive when based on detection of antibody levels in bulk tank milk (BTM). Here we present a novel technique to confirm the presence of the parasite based on a pooled-milk sample from 10 randomly selected first - lactation heifers (FLH). This study was run in two parts. First, a longitudinal study was performed to look at infection dynamics in milk samples across the grazing season using a prototype ELISA developed by Svanova (Boehringer-Ingelheim, Uppsala). We identified that mean ODR values in milk samples from FLH was significantly higher than that for older cows (0.13 versus 0.07 respectively, p < 0.001) suggesting that samples from the FLH cohort should be pooled to produce the test. Second, the pooled - milk test was evaluated on a cross-sectional survey of UK dairy herds (n = 25 grazing and n = 25 zero-grazing herds) to evaluate test performance under field conditions. The optical density ratio (ODR) cut-off value for our pooled-milk test using 10 FLH milk samples was optimal at a value of 0.16. Pooling 10 FLH samples created a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% and 95.5% respectively. In comparison, whole-herd BTM samples had a maximum sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 63.6% at an ODR cut-off of 0.18. The area under the curve according to receiver-operative-characteristic (ROC) analysis was high for the 10-heifer test (0.87) but poor for the whole herd BTM testing (0.45). This study provides a more sensitive diagnostic test strategy for the screening of D.viviparus in dairy herds. Testing herds at the end of a grazing season would facilitate the planning of effective control measures, such as the use of the lungworm vaccination or strategic deworming, for the following grazing season. This may prove to be a useful test strategy for the diagnosis of a variety of parasitic diseases of livestock.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dairy cow, Diagnosis, Dictyocaulosis, Dictyocaulus viviparus, ELISA, Milk, ROC analysis
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2019 07:59
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:53
DOI: 10.1016/j.vpoa.2019.100008
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3038153