Development of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent invasive Salmonella Typhimurium infections in sub-Saharan Africa

Baliban, Scott M, Yang, Mingjun, Ramachandran, Girish, Curtis, Brittany, Shridhar, Surekha, Laufer, Rachel S, Wang, Jin Y, Van Druff, John, Higginson, Ellen E, Hegerle, Nicolas
et al (show 7 more authors) (2017) Development of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent invasive Salmonella Typhimurium infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 11 (4). e0005493-.

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Invasive infections associated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Enteritidis (SE), Typhimurium (STm) and monophasic variant 1,4,[5],12:i:- are a major health problem in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, and currently, there are no approved human NTS vaccines. NTS O-polysaccharides and flagellin proteins are protective antigens in animal models of invasive NTS infection. Conjugates of SE core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) chemically linked to SE flagellin have enhanced the anti-COPS immune response and protected mice against fatal challenge with a Malian SE blood isolate. We report herein the development of a STm glycoconjugate vaccine comprised of STm COPS conjugated to the homologous serovar phase 1 flagellin protein (FliC) with assessment of the role of COPS O-acetyls for functional immunity. Sun-type COPS conjugates linked through the polysaccharide reducing end to FliC were more immunogenic and protective in mice challenged with a Malian STm blood isolate than multipoint lattice conjugates (>95% vaccine efficacy [VE] versus 30-43% VE). Immunization with de-O-acetylated STm-COPS conjugated to CRM197 provided significant but reduced protection against STm challenge compared to mice immunized with native STm-COPS:CRM197 (63-74% VE versus 100% VE). Although OPS O-acetyls were highly immunogenic, post-vaccination sera that contained various O-acetyl epitope-specific antibody profiles displayed similar in vitro bactericidal activity when equivalent titers of anti-COPS IgG were assayed. In-silico molecular modeling further indicated that STm OPS forms a single dominant conformation, irrespective of O-acetylation, in which O-acetyls extend outward and are highly solvent exposed. These preclinical results establish important quality attributes for an STm vaccine that could be co-formulated with an SE-COPS:FliC glycoconjugate as a bivalent NTS vaccine for use in sub-Saharan Africa.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals, Humans, Mice, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Infections, Disease Models, Animal, Glycoconjugates, O Antigens, Flagellin, Immunoglobulin G, Salmonella Vaccines, Vaccines, Attenuated, Antibodies, Bacterial, Regression Analysis, Africa South of the Sahara, Female
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 14 May 2019 08:24
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:46
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005493
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