The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory markers in blood and brain and on behavior in individually-housed pigs

Nordgreen, Janicke, Munsterhjelm, Camilla, Aae, Frida, Popova, Anastasija, Boysen, Preben, Ranheim, Birgit, Heinonen, Mari, Raszplewicz, Joanna, Piepponen, Petteri, Lervik, Andreas
et al (show 2 more authors) (2018) The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory markers in blood and brain and on behavior in individually-housed pigs. PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 195. pp. 98-111.

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Most of us have experienced deterioration of mood while ill. In humans, immune activation is associated with lethargy and social withdrawal, irritability and aggression; changes in social motivation could, in theory, lead to less functional interactions. This might also be the case for animals housed in close confinement. Tail biting in pigs is an example of damaging social behavior, and sickness is thought to be a risk factor for tail biting outbreaks. One possible mechanism whereby sickness may influence behavior is through cytokines. To identify possible mediators between immune activation and behavioral change, we injected 16 gilts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O111:B4; 1.5 μg kg<sup>-1</sup> IV through a permanent catheter). In LPS-treated pigs, a significant increase in cortisol, TNF-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and IL-8 was observed alongside decreased activity within the first 6 h after the injection. CRP was elevated at 12 and 24 h after injection, and food intake was reduced for the first 24 h after injection. Three days post-injection, LPS pigs had lower levels of noradrenaline in their hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex compared to saline-injected pigs. Pigs injected with LPS also had higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in their frontal cortex compared to saline-injected pigs. Thus, a low dose of LPS can induce changes in brain cytokine levels and neurotransmitter levels that persist after inflammatory and stress markers in the periphery have returned to baseline levels.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pig, Sickness behavior, Inflammation, Tail biting, Noradrenaline
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 30 May 2019 15:29
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:42
DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.07.013
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