Artefact-free topography based scleral-asymmetry



Abass, Ahmed ORCID: 0000-0002-8622-4632, Teixeira Lopes, Bernardo, Eliasy, Ashkan ORCID: 0000-0002-4473-1900, Salomao, Marcella, Wu, Richard, White, Lynn, Jones, Steve ORCID: 0000-0002-8977-8403, Clamp, John, Ambrósio Jr, Renato and Elsheikh, Ahmed ORCID: 0000-0001-7456-1749
(2019) Artefact-free topography based scleral-asymmetry. PLoS One, 14 (7).

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Abstract

Purpose: To present a three-dimensional non-parametric method for detecting scleral asymmetry using corneoscleral topography data that are free of edge-effect artefacts. Methods: The study included 88 participants aged 23 to 65 years (37.7±9.7), 47 women and 41 men. The eye topography data were exported from the Eye Surface Profiler software in MATLAB binary data container format then processed by custom built MATLAB codes entirely independent from the profiler software. Scleral asymmetry was determined initially from the unprocessed topography before being determined again after removing the edge-effect noise. Topography data were levelled around the limbus, then edge-effect was eliminated using a robust statistical moving median technique. In addition to comparing raw elevation data, scleral elevation was also compared through fitting a sphere to every single scleral surface and determining the relative elevation from the best-fit sphere reference surface. Results: When considering the averaged raw topography elevation data in the scleral section of the eye at radius 8 mm, the average raw elevations of the right eyes’ sclera were -1.5±1.77, -1.87±2.12, -1.36±1.82 and -1.57±1.87 mm. In the left eyes at the same radius the average raw elevations were -1.62±1.78, -1.82±2.07, -1.28±1.76 and -1.68±1.93 mm. While, when considering the average raw elevation of the sclera after removing the edge effect, the average raw elevations of the right eyes were -3.71±0.25, -4.06±0.23, -3.95±0.19 and -3.95±0.23 mm. In the left eyes at the same radius the average raw elevations were -3.71±0.19, -3.97±0.22, -3.96±0.19 and -3.96±0.18 mm in the nasal, temporal, superior and inferior sides respectively. Maximum raw elevation asymmetry in the averaged scleral raw elevation was 1.6647±0.9015 mm in right eyes and 1.0358±0.6842 mm in left eyes, both detected at -38° to the nasal side. Best-fit sphere-based relative elevation showed that sclera is more elevated in three main meridians at angles -40°, 76°, and 170° in right eyes and -40°, 76°, and 170° in left eyes, all measured from the nasal meridian. Maximum recorded relative elevation asymmetries were 0.0844±0.0355 mm and 0.068±0.0607 mm at angular positions 76° and 63.5° for right and left eyes in turn. Conclusions: It is not possible to use corneoscleral topography data to predict the scleral shape without considering a method of removing the edge-effect from the topography data. The nasal side of the sclera is higher than the temporal side, therefore, rotationally symmetric scleral contact lenses are more likely to be translated towards the temporal side. The scleral shape is best described by levelled raw elevation rather than relative elevation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Eyes, Cornea, Eye lens, Radii, Tomography, Asymmetry, Digital imaging, Eyelids
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2019 08:40
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2020 11:11
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219789
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219789
Related URLs:
URI: http://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3050602

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