Application of the ICD-PM classification system to stillbirth in four sub-Saharan African countries.



Aminu, Mamuda, Mathai, Matthews and van den Broek, Nynke
(2019) Application of the ICD-PM classification system to stillbirth in four sub-Saharan African countries. PloS one, 14 (5). e0215864 - e0215864.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To identify the causes and categories of stillbirth using the Application of ICD-10 to Deaths during the Perinatal Period (ICD-PM). METHODS:Prospective, observational study in 12 hospitals across Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe. Healthcare providers (HCPs) assigned cause of stillbirth following perinatal death audit. Cause of death was classified using the ICD-PM classification system. FINDINGS:1267 stillbirths met the inclusion criteria. The stillbirth rate (per 1000 births) was 20.3 in Malawi (95% CI: 15.0-42.8), 34.7 in Zimbabwe (95% CI: 31.8-39.2), 38.8 in Kenya (95% CI: 33.9-43.3) and 118.1 in Sierra Leone (95% CI: 115.0-121.2). Of the included cases, 532 (42.0%) were antepartum deaths, 643 (50.7%) were intrapartum deaths and 92 cases (7.3%) could not be categorised by time of death. Overall, only 16% of stillbirths could be classified by fetal cause of death. Infection (A2 category) was the most commonly identified cause for antepartum stillbirths (8.6%). Acute intrapartum events (I3) accounted for the largest proportion of intrapartum deaths (31.3%). In contrast, for 76% of stillbirths, an associated maternal condition could be identified. The M1 category (complications of placenta, cord and membranes) was the most common category assigned for antepartum deaths (31.1%), while complications of labour and delivery (M3) accounted for the highest proportion of intrapartum deaths (38.4%). Overall, the proportion of cases for which no fetal or maternal cause could be identified was 32.6% for antepartum deaths, 8.1% for intrapartum deaths and 17.4% for cases with unknown time of death. CONCLUSION:Clinical care and documentation of this care require strengthening. Diagnostic protocols and guidelines should be introduced more widely to obtain better data on cause of death, especially antepartum stillbirths. Revision of ICD-PM should consider an additional category to help accommodate stillbirths with unknown time of death.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2019 12:46
Last Modified: 03 Jan 2022 14:10
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215864
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215864
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3051628