The potential for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Iran’s Water Management



Khosravi, Fatemeh
(2019) The potential for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Iran’s Water Management. PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.

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Abstract

There is a growing international body of literature on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) effectiveness, but to date little EIA-related research has been undertaken in Iran despite of its inception in 1994. This research, therefore, aims to evaluate Iran’s EIA system, examine its effectiveness and provide recommendations to enhance it. In doing so the first section of this research undertakes an evaluation of the Iranian EIA system, focusing on EIA legislation, administration and processes. This research then examines EIA effectiveness in Iran by looking at water management in the Urmia Lake Basin (ULB). ULB was used as a case study area to investigate the extent to which EIA is delivering environmental protection within the water sector in Iran. In doing so, an EIA effectiveness framework is developed and applied for assessing the extent to which EIA has been effective in the ULB. The research helps in establishing that in Iran, environmental consideration is absent above the project level but even for EIA, the activities are rather restricted. EIA is not able to address and mitigate the negative effects of extensive water exploitation through dam building. Based on the findings, some recommendations are provided in the last section of this research. These were further developed in consideration of EIA reviews undertaken in other countries and opinions of Iranian EIA experts were also incorporated which were collected through semi-structured interviews. This research contributes to academic literature in three important ways: First, it provides a thorough review of the Iranian EIA system. Second, it confirms that EIA is not procedurally and substantively effective by examining EIA effectiveness in Iranian water management sector. It also reveals how contextual factors can constraint EIA effectiveness in Iran. Finally, it provides recommendations to improve Iran’s EIA system by evaluating the feasibility of adopting these ‘recommendations’ within Iran, taking into consideration the contextual factors of the country.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Divisions: Fac of Science & Engineering > School of Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2019 11:52
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2021 03:04
DOI: 10.17638/03058369
Supervisors:
  • Jha-Thakur, Urmila
  • Fischer, Thomas
  • Clement, Sarah
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3058369