Effect of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine on Pneumococcal Carriage

Rylance, Jamie ORCID: 0000-0002-2323-3611, de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter, Pojar, Sherin ORCID: 0000-0002-7746-3279, Nikolaou, Elissavet, German, Esther, Mitsi, Elena, Jochems, Simon, Carniel, Beatriz, Solórzano, Carla, Reiné, Jesús
et al (show 25 more authors) (2018) Effect of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine on Pneumococcal Carriage.

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Abstract The widely used nasally-administered Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) alters the dynamics of naturally occurring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in animal models. Using a human experimental model (serotype 6B) we tested two hypotheses: 1) LAIV increased the density of S. pneumoniae in those already colonised; 2) LAIV administration promoted colonisation. Randomised, blinded administration of LAIV or nasal placebo either preceded bacterial inoculation or followed it, separated by a 3-day interval. The presence and density of S. pneumoniae was determined from nasal washes by bacterial culture and PCR. Overall acquisition for bacterial carriage were not altered by prior LAIV administration vs. controls (25/55 [45.5%] vs 24/62 [38.7%] respectively, p=0.46). Transient increase in acquisition was detected in LAIV recipients at day 2 (33/55 [60.0%] vs 25/62 [40.3%] in controls, p=0.03). Bacterial carriage densities were increased approximately 10-fold by day 9 in the LAIV recipients (2.82 vs 1.81 log 10 titers, p=0.03). When immunisation followed bacterial acquisition (n=163), LAIV did not change area under the bacterial density-time curve (AUC) at day 14 by conventional microbiology (primary endpoint), but significantly reduced AUC to day 27 by PCR (p=0.03). These studies suggest that LAIV may transiently increase nasopharyngeal density of S. pneumoniae. Transmission effects should therefore be considered in the timing design of vaccine schedules. Trial registration The study was registered on EudraCT (2014-004634-26) Funding The study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Medical Research Council.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2020 16:03
Last Modified: 01 Oct 2021 07:28
DOI: 10.1101/343319
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201811-2081LE
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3074536