Definition of the Chemical and Immunological Signals Involved in Drug-Induced Liver Injury

Ali, Serat-E ORCID: 0000-0002-9806-8796, Waddington, James C ORCID: 0000-0003-2641-5055, Park, B Kevin ORCID: 0000-0001-8384-824X and Meng, Xiaoli ORCID: 0000-0002-7774-2075
(2020) Definition of the Chemical and Immunological Signals Involved in Drug-Induced Liver Injury. CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN TOXICOLOGY, 33 (1). pp. 61-76.

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Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI), which is rare and often recognized only late in drug development, poses a major public health concern and impediment to drug development due to its high rate of morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of DILI are not completely understood; both non-immune- and immune-mediated mechanisms have been proposed. Non-immune-mediated mechanisms including direct damage to hepatocytes, mitochondrial toxicity, interference with transporters, and alteration of bile ducts are well-known to be associated with drugs such as acetaminophen and diclofenac; whereas immune-mediated mechanisms involving activation of both adaptive and innate immune cells and the interactions of these cells with parenchymal cells have been proposed. The chemical signals involved in activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses are discussed with respect to recent scientific advances. In addition, the immunological signals including cytokine and chemokines that are involved in promoting liver injury are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss how liver tolerance and regeneration can have profound impact on the pathogenesis of iDILI. Continuous research in developing <i>in vitro</i> systems incorporating immune cells with liver cells and animal models with impaired liver tolerance will provide an opportunity for improved prediction and prevention of immune-mediated iDILI.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Liver, T-Lymphocytes, Animals, Humans, Signal Transduction, Immune Tolerance, Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 09 Mar 2020 11:06
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 23:58
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00275
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