Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for speciation of trace metals in estuarine waters - A multimethodological approach



Cindrić, Ana-Marija, Marcinek, Saša, Garnier, Cédric, Salaün, Pascal, Cukrov, Neven, Oursel, Benjamin, Lenoble, Véronique and Omanović, Dario
(2020) Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for speciation of trace metals in estuarine waters - A multimethodological approach. Science of The Total Environment, 721. 137784 - 137784.

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Abstract

Understanding the potential bioavailability of trace metals (TM) in marine systems is of prime importance to implement adapted regulations and efficiently protect our coastal and estuarine waters. In this study Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique with two different pore size was used to evaluate the potentially bioavailable fractions (DGT-labile) of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn at various depths of a highly stratified estuary (the Krka River estuary, Croatia) both in winter and summer. DGT-labile concentrations were compared to (1) total dissolved concentrations, (2) concentrations of labile species measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV-labile) for Cu and (3) concentrations derived by chemical speciation modelling. High correlation between dissolved and DGT-labile concentrations was found for all metals, except for Zn where contamination problems prevented reliable conclusions. Percentages of DGT-labile fractions over total dissolved concentrations were (AVG ± SD): 92 ± 3%, 64 ± 2%, 23 ± 5%, 61 ± 3% and 57 ± 6% for Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Co, respectively. No significant difference was found between trace metal concentrations measured with an open pore and restricted pore devices, implying the predominance of kinetically labile metal complexes smaller than 1 nm. For Cu, ASV-labile and DGT labile concentrations were highly correlated (0.97) with ASV-labile concentration being around 35% lower than that of the DGT-labile. Modelling of chemical speciation reliably predicted dynamic (free, inorganic and part of organic complexes) concentration of Cd, whereas dynamic concentrations of Cu and Pb were underestimated by 32% and 65%, respectively. In view of the relative simplicity of DGT devices, they are well suited for the monitoring effort of coastal waters, informing on potentially bioavailable concentrations of TM and thereby, helping to achieve good environmental status of coastal waters, as stipulated within the EU Water Framework Directive.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bioavailability, Trace metals, Stratified estuary, Krka River estuary, Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), Speciation modelling
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2020 11:30
Last Modified: 28 Jul 2022 12:14
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137784
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3080349