Study of High-k Dielectrics and their Interfaces on Semiconductors for Device Applications



Supardan, Siti Nurbaya
(2019) Study of High-k Dielectrics and their Interfaces on Semiconductors for Device Applications. PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.

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Abstract

This thesis has focused on two emerging applications of high-k dielectrics in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) and in Metal-InsulatorSemiconductor High Electron Mobility Transistors (MIS-HEMTs). The key aim has been to propose the best routes for passivation of semiconductor/high-k oxide interfaces by investigating the band alignments and interface properties of several oxides, such as Tm2O3, Ta2O5, ZrO2, Al2O3 and MgO, deposited on different semiconductors: Si, Ge, GaN, InGaAs and InGaSb. The electrical characterisation of fabricated MIS capacitor and (MIS)-HEMT devices have also been performed. Thulium silicate (TmSiO) has been identified as a promising candidate for integration as interfacial layer (IL) in HfO2/TiN MOSFETs. The physical properties of Tm2O3/IL/Si interface have been elucidated, where IL (TmSiO) has been formed using different post-deposition annealing (PDA) temperatures, from 550 to 750 °C. It has been found that the best-scaled stack (sub-nm IL) is formed at 550 °C PDA with a graded interface layer and a strong SiOx (Si 3+) component. A large valence band offset (VBO) of 2.8 eV and a large conduction band offset (CBO) of 1.9 eV have been derived for Tm2O3/Si by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Further increase of device performance can be achieved by replacing Si with GaN for high frequency, high power and high-temperature operation. In this thesis, several GaN cleaning procedures have been considered: 30% NH4OH, 20% (NH4)2S, and 37% HCl. It has been found that the HCl treatment shows the lowest oxygen contamination and Garich surface, and hence has been used prior sputtering of Ta2O5, Al2O3, ZrO2 and MgO on GaN. The large VBOs of 1.1 eV and 1.2 eV have been derived for Al2O3 and MgO on GaN respectively, using XPS and Kraut’s method; the corresponding CBOs are 2.0 eV and 2.8 eV respectively, taking into account the band gaps of Al2O3 (6.5 eV) and MgO (7.4 eV) determined from XPS O 1s electron energy spectra. The lowest leakage currents were obtained for devices with Al2O3 and MgO, i.e. 5.3 ×10-6 A/cm2 and 3.2 ×10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V, respectively in agreement with high band offsets (> 1 eV). Furthermore, the effect of different surface treatments (HCl, O2 plasma and 1-Octadecanethiol (ODT)) prior to atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated. The MIS-HEMTs fabricated using the low-cost ODT GaN surface treatment have been found to exhibit superior performance for power switching applications such as a low threshold voltage, VT of -12.3 V, hysteresis of 0.12 V, a small subthreshold voltage slope (SS) of 73 mV/dec, and a low density of interface states, Dit of 3.0 x10^12 cm-2eV-1. A comprehensive novel study of HfO2/InGaAs and Al2O3/InGaSb interfaces have also been conducted for use in III-V based MOSFETs. The addition of the plasma H2/TMA/H2 pre-cleaning has been found to be very effective in recovering etch damage on InGaAs, especially for (110) orientation, and led to the improvement of electrical characteristics. Furthermore, the combination of H2 plasma exposure and forming gas anneal yielded significantly improved metrics for Al2O3/InGaSb over the control HCltreated sample, with the 150 W plasma treatment giving both the highest capacitance and the lowest stretch out.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Divisions: Fac of Science & Engineering > School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 09 Jun 2020 11:38
Last Modified: 11 Jun 2020 00:11
DOI: 10.17638/03088623
Supervisors:
URI: http://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3088623