The Gifford Report Revisited Racism in Employment: A Case Study of Liverpool

Elmi, Amina
(2019) The Gifford Report Revisited Racism in Employment: A Case Study of Liverpool. PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.

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Race relations’ legislation since 1965 onwards in the UK has attempted to address the challenges of racial inequality when it comes to employment. Though there have been significant improvements, there remain some challenges in specific locations. One such location is Liverpool. This research is based on the seminal study, the Gifford Report (1989), which provided evidences to support the argument that Liverpool performed worse than the rest of the country with respect to indicators of racial equality in the labour market (Brown, 1979, Lord Scarman, 1981, Ben-Tovin, 1983). The current research focuses on Liverpool, which is considered to be an anomaly in terms of racialised relationships and the Black experience across England (Small 1991, Murphy 1995 Christian 1998). This research attempts to determine if there has been an improvement in racial equality with respect to employment. The study aims to understand the limitations and possibilities associated with Black social mobility within the labour market, and to identify key challenges to upward mobility. The study replicates certain elements of the methodology of the 1989 Gifford Report, using semi-structured interviews, oral testimonies, written requests, head-count analysis and secondary statistical data. The findings of the qualitative and quantitative methods present overwhelming evidence that racism remains a key challenge, which can impact access to employment. The findings show the presence of systemic and institutional racism: participants feel disadvantaged because of ethnicity, with negative perceptions and stereotyping limiting opportunities for employment. The research concludes with the argument that some challenges identified in the Gifford Report (1989) have been met by specific policies proposed by local and national governments. However, there remain systemic challenges that need to be addressed. The research reflects on critical race theory and concludes that the existing dominance and perceived hegemony of racial inequality need to be revisited.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Divisions: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences > School of Law and Social Justice
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2020 11:34
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 23:50
DOI: 10.17638/03089495