A systematic review of the role of eculizumab in systemic lupus erythematosus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy



Wright, Rachael D ORCID: 0000-0002-7606-2297, Bannerman, Fariba, Beresford, Michael W ORCID: 0000-0002-5400-9911 and Oni, Louise ORCID: 0000-0002-1532-2390
(2020) A systematic review of the role of eculizumab in systemic lupus erythematosus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. BMC Nephrology, 21.

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Abstract

Background Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe consequence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that affects approximately 40% of patients. Pathogenic immune complexes that are characteristic of LN deposit in the kidney and activate immune mediated pathways including the complement system. Complete remission rates in LN are approximately 44% highlighting the need for new treatment strategies in these patients. Eculizumab is a fully humanised IgG2/IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed at C5 and thus prevents the formation of the terminal complement complex. Eculizumab is successfully used in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) and paroxysomal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) but it is not standardly used in LN. The aim of this project was to determine whether there is any role for eculizumab as adjunctive therapy in LN. Methods Using a predefined search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE the literature was reviewed systematically to identify studies in which eculizumab had been used to treat patients with SLE. All patients were included that were treated with complement inhibitors. Favourable outcome in this study was defined as resolution of symptoms that led to treatment, discharge from hospital or recovery of renal function. Patients were excluded if there was no outcome data or if complement inhibition was unrelated to their SLE. Results From 192 abstracts screened, 14 articles were identified, involving 30 patients. All SLE patients administered eculizumab were treated for thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) secondary to LN diagnosed either histologically (66%) or as part of a diagnosis of aHUS (73%). 93% of patients had a favourable outcome in response to eculizumab treatment, of which 46% had a favourable outcome and successfully stopped treatment without relapse in symptoms during a median follow up of 7 months. Three patients (10%) reported adverse outcomes related to eculizumab therapy. Conclusions Scientific evidence supports the involvement of complement in the pathogenesis of LN however the role of complement inhibition in clinical practice is limited to those with TMA features. This systematic review showed that in cases of LN complicated with TMA, eculizumab seems to be a very efficacious therapy. Further evidence is required to determine whether patients with refractory LN may benefit from adjunctive complement inhibition.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lupus nephritis, Eculizumab, Complement, Thrombotic microangiopathy, Systematic review
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 06 Jul 2020 09:59
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2021 15:10
DOI: 10.1186/s12882-020-01888-5
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3092641