Assessing expanded community wide treatment for schistosomiasis: Baseline infection status and self-reported risk factors in three communities from the Greater Accra region, Ghana



Cunningham, Lucas J, Campbell, Suzy J, Armoo, Samuel, Koukounari, Artemis, Watson, Victoria ORCID: 0000-0003-2519-4588, Selormey, Pamela, Stothard, J Russell, Idun, Bright, Asiedu, Manfred, Ashong, Yvonne
et al (show 2 more authors) (2020) Assessing expanded community wide treatment for schistosomiasis: Baseline infection status and self-reported risk factors in three communities from the Greater Accra region, Ghana. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 14 (4).

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Abstract

Background This paper reports on the baseline prevalence and associated risk factor findings of a pilot, longitudinal study exploring community-wide treatment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, using albendazole plus praziquantel in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Method From three communities, at least, 658 individuals were enrolled into the study via random household selection. Prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis and STH infection were determined from stool and urine samples with a questionnaire being administered in order to explore other morbidities and risk factors. Factor analysis of household demographic variables was undertaken to generate a socioeconomic score; this was then further categorised into tertiles. Proportional-odds cumulative logit generalised estimating equation (GEE) models were used to investigate categorical ordinal intensity of infection associations with morbidity. Separately, logistic GEE models were used to investigate risk factor associations with infection prevalence. Results Both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were prevalent in the three communities, with the prevalence of S. haematobium ranging from 3.3% (24/679; 95% CI = 1.9–4.7) to 19% (114/632; 95% CI = 15.8–22.2) and S. mansoni ranging from 30% (202/679; 95% CI = 26.5–33.5) to 78.3% (409/536; 95% CI = 74.7–81.9). The total prevalence of STH across all three sites was negligible at 1.3% (24/1847; 95% CI = 0.8–1.9) comprising mainly hookworm (10/1847). Multivariable statistical models indicated males to be 2.3 (95% CI = 1.7–3.3) times more likely to have a high intensity S. mansoni infection and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1–2) times more likely to have a high intensity of S. haematobium infection compared to females. There was no significant difference in the likelihood of infection with S. mansoni between adults and school age children (SAC), however S. haematobium infections were found to be 2.5 (95% CI = 1.8–3.5) times more likely to occur in school age children than in adults. Multivariable statistical models (adjusted for age and sex) indicated an association between schistosomiasis and a number of self-reported morbidity indicators (notably diarrhoea and blood in stool and urine). Low socio-economic status was also associated with SCH infection (OR: 2; 95% CI = 1.3–3.2). Conclusion The communities targeted by this study showed a range of Schistosoma prevalence’s of infection, from hypo-endemic through to meso-endemic and hyper-endemic. The prevalence of SCH across the different age groups in the study locations highlights the large number of individuals currently being left out of the standard morbidity control method of annual treatment of the SAC.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosomiasis, morbidity, medical risk factors, urine, schools, age groups
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2020 15:18
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2021 04:10
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007973
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007973
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3100706