Early signals of vaccine driven perturbation seen in pneumococcal carriage population genomic data

Chaguza, Chrispin ORCID: 0000-0002-2108-1757, Heinsbroek, Ellen, Gladstone, Rebecca, Tafatatha, Terence, Alaerts, Maaike, Peno, Chikondi, Cornick, Jennifer, Musicha, Patrick, Bar-Zeev, Naor ORCID: 0000-0003-0570-4624, Kamng’ona, Arox
et al (show 8 more authors) (2018) Early signals of vaccine driven perturbation seen in pneumococcal carriage population genomic data. BioRxiv.

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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have reduced pneumococcal diseases globally. Despite this, much remains to be learned about their effect on pathogen population structure. Here we undertook whole genome sequencing of 660 pneumococcal strains from asymptomatic carriers to investigate population restructuring in pneumococcal strains sampled before and after PCV13 introduction in a previously vaccine-naïve setting. We show substantial decreasing frequency of vaccine-type (VT) strains and their strain diversity post-vaccination in the vaccinated but not unvaccinated age groups indicative of direct but limited or delayed indirect effect of vaccination. Clearance of identical VT serotypes associated with multiple lineages occurred regardless of their genetic background. Interestingly, despite the increasing frequency of non-vaccine type (NVT) strains through serotype replacement, the serotype diversity was not fully restored to the levels observed prior to vaccination implying limited serotype replacement. The frequency of antibiotic resistant strains was low and remained largely unchanged post-vaccination but intermediate-penicillin-resistant lineages were reduced in the post vaccine population. Significant perturbations marked by changing frequency of accessory genes associated with diverse functions especially mobile genetic elements and bacteriocin activity were detected. This phylogenomic analysis demonstrates early vaccine-induced pneumococcal population restructuring not only at serotype but also accessory genome level. Author summary Different formulations of PCVs have been effective in reducing the invasive pneumococcal disease burden globally. Clinical trials have started to indicate high impact and effectiveness of PCV13 in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) but there is limited understanding of how the introduction of PCVs alters the population structure of pneumococcal strains at serotype and genomic level. Here we investigated this using pneumococcal strains sampled pre‐ and post-PCV13 introduction from a previously vaccine naïve setting in Northern Malawi. Our findings reveal decrease in frequency of VT serotypes and their associated lineages in the largely vaccinated under-five population but not older individuals indicating a direct but limited or delayed indirect protection. The diversity of serotypes also decreased post-vaccination in VT strains in the under-fives but there was no change in NVT strains suggesting incomplete serotype replacement. At the genomic level, logistic regression revealed changing frequency of accessory genes largely associated with mobile genetic elements but such changes did not include any antibiotic resistance genes. These findings show significant perturbations at serotype and accessory genome level in carried pneumococcal population after two years from PCV13 introduction but the pneumococcal population was still perturbed and had not returned to a new equilibrium state.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2020 15:57
Last Modified: 27 Apr 2021 07:10
DOI: 10.1101/459693
Open Access URL: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/70/7/1294/549...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3103800