On the mechanisms underlying attenuated redox responses to exercise in older individuals: A hypothesis

Jackson, Malcolm J ORCID: 0000-0003-3683-8297
(2020) On the mechanisms underlying attenuated redox responses to exercise in older individuals: A hypothesis. FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, 161. pp. 326-338.

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Responding appropriately to exercise is essential to maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function at all ages and particularly during aging. Here, a hypothesis is presented that a key component of the inability of skeletal muscle to respond effectively to exercise in aging is a denervation-induced failure of muscle redox signalling. This novel hypothesis proposes that an initial increase in oxidation in muscle mitochondria leads to a paradoxical increase in the reductive state of specific cysteines of signalling proteins in the muscle cytosol that suppresses their ability to respond to normal oxidising redox signals during exercise. The following are presented for consideration:Transient loss of integrity of peripheral motor neurons occurs repeatedly throughout life and is normally rapidly repaired by reinnervation, but this repair process becomes less efficient with aging. Each transient loss of neuromuscular integrity leads to a rapid, large increase in mitochondrial peroxide production in the denervated muscle fibers and in neighbouring muscle fibers. This peroxide may initially act to stimulate axonal sprouting and regeneration, but also stimulates retrograde mitonuclear communication to increase expression of a range of cytoprotective proteins in an attempt to protect the fiber and neighbouring tissues against oxidative damage. The increased peroxide within mitochondria does not lead to an increased cytosolic peroxide, but the increases in adaptive cytoprotective proteins include some located to the muscle cytosol which modify the local cytosol redox environment to induce a more reductive state in key cysteines of specific signalling proteins. Key adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise involve transient peroxiredoxin oxidation as effectors of redox signalling in the cytosol. This requires sensitive oxidation of key cysteine residues. In aging, the chronic change to a more reductive cytosolic environment prevents the transient oxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 and hence prevents essential adaptations to exercise, thus contributing to loss of muscle mass and function. Experimental approaches suitable for testing the hypothesis are also outlined.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aging, Exercise, Training, Muscle, Redox
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2020 16:05
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 23:23
DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.10.026
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.10.02...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3106053