Optimisation of Urine Sample Preparation for Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Altering Sample pH, Sulphuric Acid Concentration and Phase Ratio



Aggarwal, Prashant, Baker, James, Boyd, Mark T ORCID: 0000-0002-2336-2106, Coyle, Seamus ORCID: 0000-0002-4761-9703, Probert, Chris ORCID: 0000-0003-4550-0239 and Chapman, Elinor A ORCID: 0000-0002-4398-1705
(2020) Optimisation of Urine Sample Preparation for Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Altering Sample pH, Sulphuric Acid Concentration and Phase Ratio. METABOLITES, 10 (12). E482-.

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Abstract

Headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) can be used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human urine. However, there is no widely adopted standardised protocol for the preparation of urine samples for analysis resulting in an inability to compare studies reliably between laboratories. This paper investigated the effect of altering urine sample pH, volume, and vial size for optimising detection of VOCs when using HS-SPME-GC-MS. This is the first, direct comparison of H2SO4, HCl, and NaOH as treatment techniques prior to HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Altering urine sample pH indicates that H2SO4 is more effective at optimising detection of VOCs than HCl or NaOH. H2SO4 resulted in a significantly larger mean number of VOCs being identified per sample (on average, 33.5 VOCs to 24.3 in HCl or 12.2 in NaOH treated urine) and more unique VOCs, produced a more diverse range of classes of VOCs, and led to less HS-SPME-GC-MS degradation. We propose that adding 0.2 mL of 2.5 M H2SO4 to 1 mL of urine within a 10 mL headspace vial is the optimal sample preparation prior to HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. We hope the use of our optimised method for urinary HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis will enhance our understanding of human disease and bolster metabolic biomarker identification.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: volatile organic compounds, VOCs, H2SO4, NaOH, HCl, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, HS-SPME-GC-MS, vials
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2020 10:58
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 23:19
DOI: 10.3390/metabo10120482
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3109183