A colorimetric comparison of sunless with natural skin tan.



Amano, Kinjiro, Xiao, Kaida, Wuerger, Sophie ORCID: 0000-0003-0080-5813 and Meyer, Georg
(2020) A colorimetric comparison of sunless with natural skin tan. PLoS One, 15 (12). e0233816 - e0233816.

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Abstract

The main ingredient of sunless tanning products is dihydroxyacetone (DHA). DHA reacts with the protein and amino acid composition in the surface layers of the skin, producing melanoidins, which changes the skin colour, imitating natural skin tan caused by melanin. The purpose of this study was to characterise DHA-induced skin colour changes and to test whether we can predict the outcome of DHA application on skin tone changes. To assess the DHA-induced skin colour shift quantitatively, colorimetric and spectral measurements of the inner forearm were obtained before, four hours and 24 hours after application of a 7.5% concentration DHA gel in the experimental group (n = 100). In a control group (n = 60), the same measurements were obtained on both the inner forearm (infrequently sun-exposed) and the outer forearm (frequently sun-exposed); the difference between these two areas was defined as the naturally occurring tan. Skin colour shifts caused by DHA tanning and by natural tanning were compared in terms of lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) in the standard CIELAB colour space. Naturalness of the DHA-induced skin tan was evaluated by comparing the trajectory of the chromaticity distribution in (L*, b*) space with that of naturally occurring tan. Twenty-four hours after DHA application, approximately 20% of the skin colour samples became excessively yellow, with chromaticities outside the natural range in (L*, b*) space. A principal component analysis was used to characterise the tanning pathway. Skin colour shifts induced by DHA were predicted by a multiple regression on the chromaticities and the skin properties. The model explained up to 49% of variance in colorimetric components with a median error of less than 2 ΔE. We conclude that the control of both the magnitude and the direction of the colour shift is a critical factor to achieve a natural appearance.

Item Type: Article
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2021 09:46
Last Modified: 03 Jun 2021 15:11
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233816
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3113142