Pre-clinical atherosclerosis is found at post-mortem, in the brains of men with HIV

Daramola, Olusola, Ali, Hebah, Mckenzie, Chris-Anne, Smith, Colin, Benjamin, Laura A ORCID: 0000-0002-9685-1664 and Solomon, Tom ORCID: 0000-0001-7266-6547
(2021) Pre-clinical atherosclerosis is found at post-mortem, in the brains of men with HIV. JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY, 27 (1). pp. 80-85.

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The aim of this study is to ascertain the burden of pre-clinical atherosclerotic changes in the brains of young adult males with HIV and explore the impact of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The study design is case-control, cross-sectional. Histological sections from HIV-positive post-mortem brain samples, with no associated opportunistic infection, from the MRC Edinburgh brain bank were evaluated. These were age and sex matched with HIV-negative controls. Immunohistochemical stains were performed to evaluate characteristics of atherosclerosis. The pathological changes were graded blinded to the HIV status and a second histopathologist reassessed 15%. Univariable models were used for statistical analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Nineteen HIV-positive post-mortem cases fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Nineteen HIV-negative controls were selected. We assessed mostly small-medium-sized vessels. For inflammation (CD45), 7 (36%) of the HIV+ had moderate/severe changes compared with none for the HIV- group (p < 0.001). Moderate/severe increase in smooth muscle remodeling (SMA) was found in 8 (42%) HIV+ and 0 HIV- brains (p < 0.001). Moderate/severe lipoprotein deposition (LOX-1) was found in 3 (15%) and 0 HIV-brains (p < 0.001). ART was associated with less inflammation [5 (63%) no ART versus 2 (18%) on ART (p = 0.028)] but was not associated with reduced lipid deposition or smooth muscle damage. In HIV infection, there are pre-clinical small- to medium-sized vessel atherosclerotic changes and ART may have limited impact on these changes. This could have implications on the increasing burden of cerebrovascular disease in HIV populations and warrants further investigation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HIV, Post-mortem, Atherosclerosis, Cerebrovascular disease, Art
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2021 08:44
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 22:56
DOI: 10.1007/s13365-020-00917-1
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