Japanese encephalitis - the prospects for new treatments

Turtle, Lance ORCID: 0000-0002-0778-1693 and Solomon, Tom ORCID: 0000-0001-7266-6547
(2018) Japanese encephalitis - the prospects for new treatments. Nature Reviews Neurology, 14 (5). pp. 298-313.

[img] Text
Japanese encephalitis — the prospects for new treatments - Author Accepted MS.pdf - Author Accepted Manuscript

Download (542kB) | Preview


Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in Asia and is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus. Although many flaviviruses can cause encephalitis, JEV causes particularly severe neurological manifestations. The virus causes loss of more disability-adjusted life years than any other arthropod-borne virus owing to the frequent neurological sequelae of the condition. Despite substantial advances in our understanding of Japanese encephalitis from in vitro studies and animal models, studies of pathogenesis and treatment in humans are lagging behind. Few mechanistic studies have been conducted in humans, and only four clinical trials of therapies for Japanese encephalitis have taken place in the past 10 years despite an estimated incidence of 69,000 cases per year. Previous trials for Japanese encephalitis might have been too small to detect important benefits of potential treatments. Many potential treatment targets exist for Japanese encephalitis, and pathogenesis and virological studies have uncovered mechanisms by which these drugs could work. In this Review, we summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment of Japanese encephalitis and focus on potential new therapeutic strategies, based on repurposing existing compounds that are already suitable for human use and could be trialled without delay. We use our newly improved understanding of Japanese encephalitis pathogenesis to posit potential treatments and outline some of the many challenges that remain in tackling the disease in humans.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Central nervous system infections, Encephalopathy, Infectious diseases, Therapeutics
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2021 11:43
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 22:56
DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2018.30
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3117583