Global Development on Causes, Epidemiology, Aetiology, and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: An Advanced Study



Alenezi, Bandar T, Alsubhi, Mohammed H, Jin, Xi, He, Gang, Wei, Qiang and Ke, Youqiang
(2021) Global Development on Causes, Epidemiology, Aetiology, and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: An Advanced Study. Highlights on Medicine and Medical Science, 17. pp. 94-117.

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Abstract

As the second most recurring cancer in men globally, prostate cancer is a major concern to men’s health. It is estimated that approximately 1.3 million new cases are diagnosed every year, those cases are leading to the casualties of nearly 360,000 men during 2018, which represents about 3.8% of all male cancer related deaths. Increasing of age among men can be correlated with global prostate cancer incidence and mortality, with the average age of diagnosis is 66 years old. Prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic or with minimal symptoms in the early stages of the disease, during this period there is minimal to no need of treatment. At early stage, the symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to those observed in prostatic hypertrophy. But in more advanced stages of prostate cancer, more painful symptoms may appear. Elevated levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are the main marker used to detect prostate cancer. The disease can be confirmed with a biopsy of the prostate gland. In this work, we try to review the prostate cancer’s causes, epidemiology, aetiology, and risk factors globally, as we think that it is a pivotal way to keep update our understanding on this increasingly important health threat to men.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, 42 Health Sciences, 3211 Oncology and Carcinogenesis, Aging, Prevention, Prostate Cancer, Urologic Diseases, Cancer, 2.1 Biological and endogenous factors, 2.2 Factors relating to the physical environment, 2.4 Surveillance and distribution, 6.1 Pharmaceuticals, Cancer
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 02 Aug 2021 07:47
Last Modified: 19 Jul 2024 06:19
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/hmms/v17/11228d
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3131979