Hypersuccinct Trees -- New universal tree source codes for optimal compressed tree data structures and range minima

Munro, J Ian, Nicholson, Patrick K, Benkner, Louisa Seelbach and Wild, Sebastian ORCID: 0000-0002-6061-9177
(2021) Hypersuccinct Trees -- New universal tree source codes for optimal compressed tree data structures and range minima. In: 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021).

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We present a new universal source code for distributions of unlabeled binary and ordinal trees that achieves optimal compression to within lower order terms for all tree sources covered by existing universal codes. At the same time, it supports answering many navigational queries on the compressed representation in constant time on the word-RAM; this is not known to be possible for any existing tree compression method. The resulting data structures, "hypersuccinct trees", hence combine the compression achieved by the best known universal codes with the operation support of the best succinct tree data structures. We apply hypersuccinct trees to obtain a universal compressed data structure for range-minimum queries. It has constant query time and the optimal worst-case space usage of $2n+o(n)$ bits, but the space drops to $1.736n + o(n)$ bits on average for random permutations of $n$ elements, and $2\lg\binom nr + o(n)$ for arrays with $r$ increasing runs, respectively. Both results are optimal; the former answers an open problem of Davoodi et al. (2014) and Golin et al. (2016). Compared to prior work on succinct data structures, we do not have to tailor our data structure to specific applications; hypersuccinct trees automatically adapt to the trees at hand. We show that they simultaneously achieve the optimal space usage to within lower order terms for a wide range of distributions over tree shapes, including: binary search trees (BSTs) generated by insertions in random order / Cartesian trees of random arrays, random fringe-balanced BSTs, binary trees with a given number of binary/unary/leaf nodes, random binary tries generated from memoryless sources, full binary trees, unary paths, as well as uniformly chosen weight-balanced BSTs, AVL trees, and left-leaning red-black trees.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Unspecified)
Additional Information: part of ESA 2021
Uncontrolled Keywords: cs.DS, cs.DS, cs.IT, math.IT
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2021 08:02
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2024 09:19
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.70
Open Access URL: https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2021/1465...
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3138941