Predictors of Prenatal Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Pakistan



Khan, Rukhsana, Waqas, Ahmed ORCID: 0000-0002-3772-194X, Mustehsan, Zille Huma, Khan, Amna Saeed, Sikander, Siham ORCID: 0000-0002-0223-7234, Ahmad, Ikhlaq, Jamil, Anam, Sharif, Maria, Bilal, Samina, Zulfiqar, Shafaq
et al (show 2 more authors) (2021) Predictors of Prenatal Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Pakistan. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY, 12. 584287-.

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Abstract

<b>Objective:</b> To determine the prevalence and association of prenatal depression with socioeconomic, demographic and personal factors among pregnant women living in Kallar Syedan, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. <b>Methods:</b> Five hundred women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, living in Kallar Syedan, a rural area of district Rawalpindi Pakistan, were included in the study. Depression was assessed using "Patient health questionnaire" (PHQ9) in Urdu, with a cut-off score of 10. Multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) was used to assess perceived social support. Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) were used to measure stressful life events in past 1 year. Tool to assess intimate partner violence (IPV) was based on WHO Multi Country Study on "Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women." <b>Results:</b> Prevalence of prenatal depression was found to be 27%. Number of pregnancies was significantly associated with prenatal depression (<i>p</i> < 0.01). Women living in a joint family and those who perceived themselves as moderately satisfied or not satisfied with their life in the next 4 years were found to be depressed (<i>p</i> < 0.01, OR 6.9, CI 1.77-26.73). Depressive symptomatology in women who experienced more than five stressful life events in last 1 year was three times higher (<i>p</i> < 0.001, OR 3.2, CI 1.68-5.98) than in women with 1-2 stressful events. Women who were supported by their significant others or their family members had 0.9 times (<i>p</i> < 0.01, OR 0.9, CI 0.85-0.96) less chance of getting depressed. Pregnant women who were psychologically abused by their partners were 1.5 times more depressed (<i>p</i> < 0.05 CI 1.12-2.51). Odds of having depression was also high in women who had less mean score of MSSI (<i>p</i> < 0.05, OR 1.1, CI 1.01-1.09). Women who had suitable accommodation had 0.5 times less chance of having depression than others (<i>p</i> < 0.05, OR 0.5, CI 0.27-0.92). <b>Conclusion:</b> Over a quarter of the women in the study population reported prenatal depression, which were predicted predominantly by psychosocial variables.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: antenatal depression, prenatal depression, maternal depression, low and middle income countries, perinatal depression, Pakistan, risk factors, epidemiology
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Population Health
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2021 07:06
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 21:26
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.584287
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.584287
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3140838

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