The Association between Fast Food Outlets and Overweight in Adolescents Is Confounded by Neighbourhood Deprivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study



Green, Mark A ORCID: 0000-0002-0942-6628, Hobbs, Matthew, Ding, Ding, Widener, Michael, Murray, John, Reece, Lindsey and Singleton, Alex ORCID: 0000-0002-2338-2334
(2021) The Association between Fast Food Outlets and Overweight in Adolescents Is Confounded by Neighbourhood Deprivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 18 (24). 13212-.

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Abstract

The aim of our study is to utilise longitudinal data to explore if the association between the retail fast food environment and overweight in adolescents is confounded by neighbourhood deprivation. Data from the Millennium Cohort Study for England were obtained for waves 5 (ages 11/12; 2011/12; <i>n</i> = 13,469) and 6 (ages 14/15; 2014/15; <i>n</i> = 11,884). Our outcome variable was overweight/obesity defined using age and sex-specific International Obesity Task Force cut points. Individuals were linked, based on their residential location, to data on the density of fast food outlets and neighbourhood deprivation. Structural Equation Models were used to model associations and test for observed confounding. A small positive association was initially detected between fast food outlets and overweight (e.g., at age 11/12, Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.0006, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 1.0002-1.0009). Following adjusting for the confounding role of neighbourhood deprivation, this association was non-significant. Individuals who resided in the most deprived neighbourhoods had higher odds of overweight than individuals in the least deprived neighbourhoods (e.g., at age 11/12 OR = 1.95, 95% CIs = 1.64-2.32). Neighbourhood deprivation was also positively associated to the density of fast food outlets (at age 11/12 Incidence Rate Ratio = 3.03, 95% CIs = 2.80-3.28).

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: fast food, neighbourhood, deprivation, overweight, obesity, adolescence, confounding
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 10 Dec 2021 08:48
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 20:28
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182413212
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3145090