Brown Adipose Tissue: A Short Historical Perspective.



Trayhurn, Paul ORCID: 0000-0002-9940-283X
(2022) Brown Adipose Tissue: A Short Historical Perspective. In: Unspecified , 1 - 18.

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Abstract

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was first identified by Conrad Gessner in 1551, but it was only in 1961 that it was firmly identified as a thermogenic organ. Key developments in the subsequent two decades demonstrated that: (1) BAT is quantitatively important to non-shivering thermogenesis in rodents, (2) uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation through a mitochondrial proton conductance pathway is the central mechanism by which heat is generated, (3) uncoupling protein-1 is the critical factor regulating proton leakage in BAT mitochondria. Following pivotal studies on cafeteria-fed rats and obese ob/ob mice, BAT was then shown to have a central role in the regulation of energy balance and the etiology of obesity. The application of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the late 2000s confirmed that BAT is present and active in adults, resulting in renewed interest in the tissue in human energetics and obesity. Subsequent studies have demonstrated a broad metabolic role for BAT, the tissue being an important site of glucose disposal and triglyceride clearance, as well as of insulin action. BAT continues to be a potential target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals, Mice, Rats, Obesity, Energy Metabolism, Thermogenesis, Adipose Tissue, Brown, Uncoupling Protein 1
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Life Courses and Medical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2022 10:07
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2022 04:10
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2087-8_1
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3150092