Association of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing With Children and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Health A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Boyland, Emma ORCID: 0000-0001-8384-4994, McGale, Lauren, Maden, Michelle ORCID: 0000-0003-4419-6343, Hounsome, Juliet, Boland, Angela ORCID: 0000-0002-5435-8644, Angus, Kathryn and Jones, Andrew
(2022) Association of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing With Children and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Health A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA PEDIATRICS, 176 (7). e221037-.

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<h4>Importance</h4>There is widespread interest in the effect of food marketing on children; however, the comprehensive global evidence reviews are now dated.<h4>Objective</h4>To quantify the association of food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing with behavioral and health outcomes in children and adolescents to inform updated World Health Organization guidelines.<h4>Data sources</h4>Twenty-two databases were searched (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, and The Cochrane Library) with a publication date limit from January 2009 through March 2020.<h4>Study selection</h4>Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria were primary studies assessing the association of food marketing with specified outcomes in children and adolescents (aged 0-19 years). Exclusion criteria were qualitative studies or those on advertising of infant formula. Of 31 063 articles identified, 96 articles were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, and 80 articles in the meta-analysis (19 372 participants).<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>Two reviewers independently extracted data. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses; meta-regressions, sensitivity analyses, and P curve analyses were also performed. Where appropriate, pooling was conducted using combining P values and vote counting by direction of effect. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to judge certainty of evidence.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Critical outcomes were intake, choice, preference, and purchasing. Important outcomes were purchase requests, dental caries, body weight, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.<h4>Results</h4>Participants totaled 19 372 from 80 included articles. Food marketing was associated with significant increases in intake (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.35; P < .001), choice (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.26-2.50; P < .001), and preference (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P = .001). Substantial heterogeneity (all >76%) was unexplained by sensitivity or moderator analyses. The combination of P values for purchase requests was significant but no clear evidence was found for an association of marketing with purchasing. Data on dental health and body weight outcomes were scarce. The certainty of evidence was graded as very low to moderate for intake and choice, and very low for preference and purchasing.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this systematic review and meta-analysis, food marketing was associated with increased intake, choice, preference, and purchase requests in children and adolescents. Implementation of policies to restrict children's exposure is expected to benefit child health.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, Dental Caries, Body Weight, Feeding Behavior, Marketing, Beverages, Adolescent, Child, Infant
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Population Health
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 17 May 2022 08:13
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 21:02
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1037
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