The terminal enzymes of (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis.

Proctor, Matthew S ORCID: 0000-0002-1484-850X, Sutherland, George A ORCID: 0000-0002-6319-4637, Canniffe, Daniel P ORCID: 0000-0002-5022-0437 and Hitchcock, Andrew ORCID: 0000-0001-6572-434X
(2022) The terminal enzymes of (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis. Royal Society open science, 9 (5). 211903-.

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(Bacterio)chlorophylls are modified tetrapyrroles that are used by phototrophic organisms to harvest solar energy, powering the metabolic processes that sustain most of the life on Earth. Biosynthesis of these pigments involves enzymatic modification of the side chains and oxidation state of a porphyrin precursor, modifications that differ by species and alter the absorption properties of the pigments. (Bacterio)chlorophylls are coordinated by proteins that form macromolecular assemblies to absorb light and transfer excitation energy to a special pair of redox-active (bacterio)chlorophyll molecules in the photosynthetic reaction centre. Assembly of these pigment-protein complexes is aided by an isoprenoid moiety esterified to the (bacterio)chlorin macrocycle, which anchors and stabilizes the pigments within their protein scaffolds. The reduction of the isoprenoid 'tail' and its addition to the macrocycle are the final stages in (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis and are catalysed by two enzymes, geranylgeranyl reductase and (bacterio)chlorophyll synthase. These enzymes work in conjunction with photosynthetic complex assembly factors and the membrane biogenesis machinery to synchronize delivery of the pigments to the proteins that coordinate them. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the catalytic mechanism, substrate recognition and regulation of these crucial enzymes and their involvement in thylakoid biogenesis and photosystem repair in oxygenic phototrophs.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: (bacterio)chlorophyll, ChlG, ChlP, chlorophyll synthase, geranylgeranyl reductase, photosynthesis
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 26 May 2022 12:02
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 21:00
DOI: 10.1098/rsos.211903
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