Evaluating the Immune Response in Treatment-Naive Hospitalised Patients With Influenza and COVID-19

Legebeke, Jelmer, Lord, Jenny, Penrice-Randal, Rebekah ORCID: 0000-0002-0653-2097, Vallejo, Andres F, Poole, Stephen, Brendish, Nathan J, Dong, Xiaofeng, Hartley, Catherine, Holloway, John W, Lucas, Jane S
et al (show 10 more authors) (2022) Evaluating the Immune Response in Treatment-Naive Hospitalised Patients With Influenza and COVID-19. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 13. 853265-.

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The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has claimed millions of lives and has had a profound effect on global life. Understanding the body's immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial in improving patient management and prognosis. In this study we compared influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infected patient cohorts to identify distinct blood transcript abundances and cellular composition to better understand the natural immune response associated with COVID-19, compared to another viral infection being influenza, and identify a prognostic signature of COVID-19 patient outcome. Clinical characteristics and peripheral blood were acquired upon hospital admission from two well characterised cohorts, a cohort of 88 patients infected with influenza and a cohort of 80 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first wave of the pandemic and prior to availability of COVID-19 treatments and vaccines. Gene transcript abundances, enriched pathways and cellular composition were compared between cohorts using RNA-seq. A genetic signature between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors was assessed as a prognostic predictor of COVID-19 outcome. Contrasting immune responses were detected with an innate response elevated in influenza and an adaptive response elevated in COVID-19. Additionally ribosomal, mitochondrial oxidative stress and interferon signalling pathways differentiated the cohorts. An adaptive immune response was associated with COVID-19 survival, while an inflammatory response predicted death. A prognostic transcript signature, associated with circulating immunoglobulins, nucleosome assembly, cytokine production and T cell activation, was able to stratify COVID-19 patients likely to survive or die. This study provides a unique insight into the immune responses of treatment naïve patients with influenza or COVID-19. The comparison of immune response between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors enables prognostication of COVID-19 patients and may suggest potential therapeutic strategies to improve survival.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: COVID-19, influenza, adaptive, innate, immune response, blood, transcriptome, survival
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2022 13:32
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 20:56
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.853265
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3157593